Some hemato-biochemical, bacteriological and pathological effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in broiler chickens
Keywords:Moringa Oleifera, Leaf Extract, Broiler Chicken, Histopathology.
Cloacal swabs were collected from 300 broiler chicks (50 dead, 50 diseased and 200 healthy) for bacteriological examintion. Out of 300 examined cloacal swabs 26 (52%) dead, 28 (56%) diseased and 28 (14%) from healthy chicks were positive for bacteria. Moringa oleifera leaf extract inhibits growth of E. coli and Salmonella spp. Post bacteriological examination 120 chicks free from bacterial infection, one day old were divided into 3 equal groups. 1st group healthy chicks (control), 2nd and 3rd groups chicks received 200 mg/ kgm bwt watery and alcoholic moringa oleifera leaf extract daily for 30 successive days in drinking water respectively. Effect of moringa leaf extract on body weight, feed conversion rate and haemato-biochemical analysis beside pathological changes of some internal organ were study.
Moringa leaf extracts (watery & alcoholic) induced significant increase in body weight gain, RBCs, Hb, PCV% WBCs, total proteins, albumin, globulins, SOD beside significant decrease in MDA and insignificant increase in AST, ALT, ALP but urea and creatinine insignificantly decreased and improved in feed conversion rate.
Histopathological investigation revealed, Hepatic tissue, congestion and hyperplasia in bile duct epithelium. Renal tubules undergo interstitial aggregation of lymphocytes and regeneration. Intestine shows slight edema. spleen and bursa show hyperplasia of lymphocyte in white pulp.
It could be concluded that Moringa leaf extract act antibacterial, growth promoter, antioxidant and have benefits effect in immunity and hemato-biochemical parameters.
 Ogbe A, John P and Affiku, P. (2012). Effect of aqueous extracts (Moringa oleifera and gum arabic) in comparison with antibiotic on growth performance, haematological and some biochemical parameters of broiler. Res. J. of Recent Sci.1 (7)10-18.
 Lar, P.; Ojile, E.; Dashe, E. and Oluoma J. (2011) Antibacterial activity of moringa oleifera seed extracts on some Gr-ve bacteria. African J. of Natur Sci., 14, 57-62.
 Fahey J. (2005) Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees Life J.; 1: 1-5.
 Thilza I, Sanni S, zakari A, Muhammed T and Musa, B. (2010). In vitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye disease. Academia Arena, 2: 80-83.
 Olugbemi, T.; Mutayoba, S. and Lekule, F. (2010) Effect of Moringa oleifera in Cassava based diets to broiler. In Inter. J. of Poultry Sci., 9, 4, 63-67.
 Chumark, P.; Khunawat, P.; Sanvarinda, Y.; Morales, P. and Pongrapeeporn, K. (2008) the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties and hypolipidaemic activities of the water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf. J. of Ethnopharmacology, 116, 439-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.12.010.
 Lewis, M., Rose, S., Mackenzie, A. and Tucker, L. (2003) Effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on growth performance of broiler. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:43-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713655281.
 Varel, V. (2002) Carvacrol and thymol reduce swine waste odor and pathogens: stability of oils. Curr. Microbiol; 44(1): 38-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-001-0071-z.
 Cruickshank W, Duguid J, Marmion B and Swain R (1975): Medical Microbiolgy 12t" Ed. W. and S.living limited Edingurg and London67-77.
 Boop, C.; Brenner, F.; Wells, J and Strockbine, N (1999): Escherichia Shigella & Salmonella. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 7thed. Washington: ASM Press 59â€“74.
 Njar V, Alao T, Okogun J and Hol, H (1993) Methoxy cathin-6-one: A new alkaloid from the stem wood of Quassia amara. Planta Med, 59: 259-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959664.
 Quinn P. Carte M., Markeryo B and Carter G (1994): Clinical Vet. Microbiology Year book-wolf publishing-Europe Limited.
 Jain, N. (2000): Schalmâ€™s vet Hematology 4th Ed p 55-96 Lee and Philadelphia.
 Paoletti, F. and Mocali, A. (1990). Determination of superoxide dismutase activity by purely chemical system based on NAD (P) H oxidation. Methods in Enzymology, 186, 209â€“219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(90)86110-H.
 Esterbauer, H. (1982). Lipid peroxidation and cancer. In Free Radicals. Pp. 101-128. London: Academic Press.
 Doumas, B.; Cartor, R.; Peers, T. and Schafer, R. (1981): A candidate reference method for determination total protein in serum Clin Chem, 27, and 1642.
 Drupt, F (1974) Colorimetric methed for determination of albumin. Phar. Bio.9.
 Reitman S and Frankle S (1957): A colormetric determimation of GOT and GPT activity. Am. J. Clinic. Path. 28: 56.
 John, D. (1982) Determination of Alkaline Phosphates. 9th Ed. 580-581.
 Coalombe J and Faurean, l. (1963) A simple method for colorimetric determ-ination of urea. Clin. Chem., 9:102-108.
 Husdan H and Roporpot A (1968) Estimaton of creatinin. Clin.Chem14, 22
 Suvarna, S.; Layton, C. and Bancroft, J. (2013): Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 7th ed., Churchill Livingstone. Elsevier, England.
 Petrie A and Watson A (1999): Statistical for Vet. and Animal Sci. Ltd U.
 Ali, M. (1993) Studies on isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria causally associated with omphalitis in chickens. M.V.Sc (Hons.) Thesis, Dept. Vet. Microbiol. Univ. Agri. Faisalabad.
 Shivaprasad, H. (2000) Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease. Review Sci. Technology, 19(2): 405-424.
 Venkanagouda, G. Krishnappa, R. and Upodhye, S. (1996) Bacterial etiology of early chick mortality. Indian Vet. J, v73 (3) 253-256.
 Abd El-Hamed, G. (2014) Molecular detection of antibiotic resistant genes of avian pathogenic E. coli. Thesis (Ph.D)-Cairo Univ. Fac. of Vet Med. Microbiology Depart.
 Ahmed, M. (2014) Immunology and Mycology Studies on recent methods for detection of Salmonellae species isolated from poultry. Thesis (M.Sc.) Banha Univ. fac. of Vet. Med.. Department of Bacteriology.
 Vinoth. B, Manivasagaperumal, R. and Balamurugan, S. (2012) phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera lam, India. Inter. j. 2(3):98-102.
 Patel, J. (2011). Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in India folklore. In Inter. J. of Phytomedicine, 3, p. 261-269.
 Ajibesin, K.; Ekpo, B., Essien, E. and Adesanya, S. (2008) Ethanobotanical Survey of Akwa lbom State of Nigeria. J. of Ethanopharmacology, 115(3)87-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.021.
 Banjo, O. (2012) Growth and Performance as affected by Moringa oleifera leaf meal in Broiler chicks diet. J. of Biology, Agric. and Health 2 (9) 34-42.
 Teteh, A. Lawson, E.; Tona1, K.; Decuypere, .E. and Gbeassor, M. (2013) Moringa Oleifera Leave: Hydroalcoholic Extract and Effects on Growth Performance of Broilers. International J. of Poultry Science 12 (7): 401-405, http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2013.401.405.
 Makanjuola, B; Olorungbohunmi, T.; Oladele, B. and Boladuro B. (2014) Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf as a substitute for antibiotics on performance and blood parameters of broiler. Livestock Res. for Rural Develop. 26(8) 36-41.
 Portugaliza H. and Fernandez, J. (2012) Growth performance of Cobb broilers given varying concentrations of malunggay (Moringa oleifera lam.) aqueous leaf extract. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2 (6): 465-469.
 Nkukwana, T.; Muchenje, V., Pieterse, E., Masika, P.; Mabusela, T.; Hoffman, L. and Dzama, K. (2014) Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf on growth performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens. Livestock sci. 161, 139â€“146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.001.
 Majambu, M. (2012) Therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera leaf in broiler chickens: A review. Frontiers Pharmacol., 3(24): 1-12.
 Khalil, A. and Eladawy, T. (1994) Isolation, identification and toxicity of saponins from different legumes. Food Chemistry, 50(2): 197-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90120-1.
 Anwar, F., Latif, S. Ashraf, M. and Gilani, A. (2007).Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother. Res., 21: 17-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2023.
 Auwal, M.; Tijjani, A.; Sadiq, M.; Saka, S. Mairiga, I., Shuaibu, A. and Gulani, I. (2013) Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera aqueous seed extract in rats. Sokoto J. of Vet. Sci., 11(1): 28-37.
 Du P, Lin P, Yang R and Hsu J (2007) Effect of dietary Moringa oleifera on growth performance, blood characteristics and immune response in broilers. J. of Chinese Society of Animal Sci., 36(3): 135-146.
 Adedapo A.; Mogbojuri, O. and Emikpe. B. (2012) Safety evaluations of aqueous extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera in rats. J. of Med. Plants Research, 3(8):586-591.
 Moyo, B.; Masika, P. and Muchenje, V. (2011) Nutritional characterization of Moringa oleifera leaves. African J. Biotech., 10 (60): 12925-12933.
 Onu P and Otuma, M (2008) Utilisation of heat treated sheep chopping in the diets of broiler finisher chicks, Int. J of Poult Sc 7 (2): 169-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.169.173.
 Ezejindu D.; Udemzue O. and Akingboye A. (2014) Hepatoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf on kidneys of rats. Amer. J of Eng. Res. 3(2) 157-161.
 Buraimoh, A. Bako, G and Ibrahim, B. (2011) Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Leave Extract of Moringa oleifera on Histology of Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage in Rats. Intern. J. of Animal and Vet. Advan 3(1) 10-13.
 Wallace R, Oleszek W, Franz C, Hahn I and Teichmann K (2010) Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity. British Poultry Science 51, 461â€“487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.506908.
 Mohamed, F. and Nagwan, E. (2015) gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in chickens: modulatory role of moringa oleifera. Assiut Vet Med J 44(161)14-22.
 Ogbunugafor H, Eneh F, Ozumba A, Okpuzor J, Igwilo I and Onyekwelu O (2011) Moringa oleifera seed oil. Pakistan J. of Nutri. 10 (5):409-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2011.409.414.
 Arabshahi, D.; Devi V. and Urooj, A. (2007) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts. Food Chemistry, 100: 1100â€“1105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.014.
 Luqman S, Srivastava S, Kumar R, Maurya A and Chanda D. (2012) Experimental assessment of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit for its antistress, antioxidant and scavenging potential using in vitro and in vivo assays. Med. Pak J Bot; 44: 1349â€“1358.
 Ogbe, A and Affiku, R (2011) Proximate study, mineral and antinutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaf harvested from Lafia, Nigeria: potential benifets in poultry nutrition. J. of Micro, Biotechn. And Food Sci.:1 (3) 96-108.
 Gupta, A. and Misra, N. (2006) Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of chamomile capitula in paracetamol intoxicated rats. Am. J. Pharm. Toxicol., 1: 17-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/ajptsp.2006.17.20.