Physiochemical and bacteriological analyses of selected sachet water in central Monrovia, Liberia
Keywords:Physiochemical, Bacteriological, Sachet Water, Analysis, Safe Drinking Water.
In developing nations of the world 80% of all diseases and over 30% of death are related to drinking water. Drinking water may become contaminated during collection, handling, storage and use. Since the introduction of factory based water, their consumptions have increased severely in Liberia. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the physiochemical and bacteriological parameters of sachet water brands sold in Central Monrovia in order to ascertain whether they conform to recommended standards of portable drinking-water by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study made used of random sampling. Six samples of seven brands of sachet water were purchased randomly from provision shops. The samples were transported to the National Standards Laboratory for physiochemical and bacteriological analyses. Physiochemical parameters such as calcium, fluoride, iron, lead, turbidity and pH were checked, while Total Viable Count, coliform, and Escherichia were checked as bacteriological parameters. The calcium level of the samples ranged from 4.60 â€“ 17.8 Mg/L. All the samples had 0.00 Mg/L of fluoride. The iron level of the samples ranged from 0.11 â€“ 0.39 Mg/L. The lead level of the samples ranged from 0.21 â€“ 0.36 Mg/L. The pH range of the samples was from 7.00 â€“ 7.01. The turbidity of the samples ranged from 0.00 â€“ 3.74 NTU. Six of the samples showed to have 0.00 NTU for turbidity. Only sample 6 had value for turbidity. The level of turbidity measured 3.47 NTU. Sample 1, 2, 5 and 7 had no trace of viable count, coliform and Escherichia while sample 3, 4 and 6 show traces of viable count, coliform and Escherichia. Samples with Total Viable Count far above 0 Cfu/mL are considered unfit for portability. There were coliform and Escherichia detected in some samples, thereby making these samples not palatable. All of the samples had concentration of calcium. All of the samples had pH and fluoride that are in range with the reference standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Ministry of Health (MOH). All of the samples had lead and iron that were out of range of the reference standards. All of the samples showed a turbidity of 0.00 NTU except sample 3 which had turbidity of 3.74 NTU.
 Mader, S. S. (2007). Essentials of Biology. New York: The McGraw â€“ Hill Companies, Inc.
 Acheampong, P. K., & Dollar, J.
 (2014).Aki-Ola Series: Biology for Senior High Schools in West Africa. Accra: Aki-Ola Publications Company Limited.
 Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-information Services (LIGIS) (June 2008). National Population and Housing Census: Preliminary Results. Government of the Republic of Liberia.
 African Development Bank Group (April, 2010). Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project: Liberia. Project Appraisal Report.
 National Public Health Institute of Liberia (June, 2010) Drinking Water Analysis routine Survey in Monrovia and its environs.
 Ndamitso, M. M., Idris, S. ,Likita M. B.,Tijani J. O., Ajai A. I. and Bula A. A. , (March 2013). Physio-chemical and Escherichia coli assessment of selected sachet water produced in some areas of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. 5(3): 134-140.
 Hinneh D. C. K. (2015). Qualitative Analysis of Some Physical Parameters in Selected Sachet Water in Central Monrovia, Liberia. (Unpublished, University of Liberia).
 Havelaar A. H., & Melse J. M., (2003). Qualifying Public Health Risk in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. A burden of Disease Approach. RIVM Report 734301022.
 Rahmanian, N., Ali, S. H. B., Homayoonfard, M., Ali, N. J., Rehan, M., Sadef, Y., and Nizami, A. S. (2015). Analysis of Physiochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Drinking water Quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Social Sciences. 6(3): 1 â€“ 10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/716125.
 World Health Organization (2012). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.
 World Health Organization (2011). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality fourth Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.
 Ahimah, J. K., and Ofosu, S. A. (May, 2012). Evaluation of quality of sachet water vended in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. 4(5): 134 â€“ 138.
 Hurst M. (2012). Bacteria in Bottled Watercoolers â€“ The Significance of Total Viable Counts (TVCs) 1. www.watercoolerseurope.eu.
 NRC (1989). National Research Council, Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, D.C. National Academy of Food sciences.
 Onweluzo, J. C., Akuagbazie, C. A., (2010). Assessment of the Quality of Bottled and Sachet Water Sold in Nsukka Town. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. (9) 104-110.
 Taiwo A. A., Idowadare O., Landre-Iyanda Y.A., Jolaoso A.A., Jiboku O. O., Ijoala T.O., Taiwo A.G., (2012). Physio-chemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Sachet water samples ion Abeokuta Metripolis. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 1 (1) 001-006.
 Oyeku O. M., Omowunmi O. J., Kupoluyi C. F., Toye O.E, (2001). Wholesomeness studies of Water Produced and Sold in Plastic Sachets (Pure Water) in Lagos Metropolis. Nig., Food J. (19), 63-69.
 Onuh J. O., Isaac V. U., (2009). Physio-Chemical and Microbiological Quality of water Sources from some major Towns in Igala Land. Nigeria Food Journal 27, (2), 66-72. https://doi.org/10.4314/nifoj.v27i2.47474.
 Banwart, G. J. (2004). Basic Food Microbiology, 2nd Edition. Chapman & Hall Inc., New York.
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). US Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment. www. Epa.gov/safe water/mcl.Html.
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2014). Coliform Bacteria in Drinking Water Supplies. New York: New York State Department of Health.
 World Health Organization (2003).Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.
 Dada A., & Ntukekpo D. S. (1997): Pure Water; How Safe? Ultimate Water Technology and Environment. 1(3): 8 â€“ 11.
 Teshamulwa O. (2007). Water Quality and Business Aspects of Sachet-vended Water in Tamale, Ghana. A Thesis on Master Degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
 Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. (2012). Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 13th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.