Influence of thyroid hormones on nervous system development – brief review

  • Authors

    • Rafael Cisne Dept. of Morphology, Biomedical Center, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
    • Rayssa Justo Dept. of Morphology, Biomedical Center, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
    • Edimilson Migowski Child Care and Pediatrics Institute Matagão Gesteira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
  • Brain Development, Potassium Iodide, Supplements, Thyroid Hormones.
  • The thyroid gland secretes important hormones for the overall development of organism, which include some related to tissue growth, as well as hormones that stimulate the O2 uptake in the cells and help the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore influence the body mass and activity level thereof, including the activities of nervous system. The thyroid gland is not essential for life, however their absence or hypofunction during fetal and neonatal life result in severe mental, physical and mental slowness, poor resistance to cold, as well as dwarfism. The hyperfunction of this gland leads to weight loss, nervousness, tachycardia, tremor and production of excess heat.

  • References

    1. [1] Gray, H: Gray Anatomia. 29ª Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan S.A, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1988. (1097-1099).

      [2] Lomenick, J. P., M. El-Sayyid & W. J. Smith. "Effect of levo-thyroxine treatment on weight and body mass index in children with acquired hypothyroidism." J Pediatr 152(1), 2008, 96-100.

      [3] Kirsten, D., "The thyroid gland: physiology and pathophysiology." Neonatal Netw 19(8), 2000, 11-26.

      [4] Lin, J. D., "Thyroglobulin and human thyroid cancer." Clin Chim Acta 388(1-2), 2008, 15-21.

      [5] Li, H. S. & G. Carayanniotis. "Induction of goitrous hypothyroidism by dietary iodide in SJL mice." Endocrinology 148(6), 2007, 2747-52.

      [6] Gluzman, B. E. & H. Niepomniszcze. "Kinetics of the iodide trapping mechanism in normal and pathological human thyroid slices." Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 103(1), 1983, 34- 9.

      [7] Cooper, D. S., "Antithyroid drugs." N Engl J Med 311(21), 1984, 1353-62.

      [8] Darbra, S., F. Balada, M. A. Marti-Carbonell & A. Garau, “Perinatal hypothyroidism effects on step-through passive avoidance task in rats." Physiol Behav 82(2-3), 2004, 497-501

      [9] Bernal, J., A. Guadano-Ferraz & B. Morte, "Perspectives in the study of thyroid hormone action on brain development and function." Thyroid 13(11), 2003, 1005-12.

      [10] Leonard, J. et al., Cerebral cortex responds rapidly to thyroid hormones. Science 214, 1981, 571–573

      [11] Cassio, A., E. Cacciari, A. Cicognani, G. Damiani, G. Missiroli, E. Corbelli, A. Balsamo, M. Bal & S. Gualandi, "Treatment for congenital hypothyroidism: thyroxine alone or thyroxine plus triiodothyronine?" Pediatrics 111(5 Pt 1), 2003, 1055-60.

      [12] Stagnaro-Green A, Sullivan S, Pearce EN., Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Jama 308, 2012, 2463-2464.

      [13] Guadaño-Ferraz,A.etal., Thetype2 iodothyronine deiodinase is expressed pri- marily in glial cells in the neonatal rat brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 1997, 10391–10396

      [14] Wu, S. Y., W. L. Green, W. S. Huang, M. T. Hays & I. J. Chopra, "Alternate pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism." Thyroid 15(8), 2005, 943-58.

      [15] Calvo, R. et al., Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. J. Clin. Invest. 86, 1990, 889–899

      [16] Kohrle, J., "Thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease: advances in thyroid hormone deiodination." Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21(2), 2007, 173-91.

      [17] Verhoeven, A. J., P. Kamer, A. K. Groen & J. M. Tager, "Effects of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation." Biochem J 226(1), 1985, 183-92.

      [18] Kavok, N. S., O. A. Krasilnikova & N. A. Babenko, "Thyroxine signal transduction in liver cells involves phospholipase C and phospholipase D activation. Genomic independent action of thyroid hormone." BMC Cell Biol 2, 2001, 5.

      [19] Escobar GM, Ares S, Berbel P, Obregon MJ, del Rey FE., The changing role of maternal thyroid hormone in fetal brain development. Semin Perinatol 32, 2008, 380-386.

      [20] Dumitrescu, A. M. & S. Refetoff , "Novel biological and clinical aspects of thyroid hormone metabolism." Endocr Dev 10, 2007, 127-39.

      [21] Bradley, D. J., H. C. Towle & W. S. Young, 3rd. "Spatial and temporal expression of alpha- and beta-thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs, including the beta 2-subtype, in the developing mammalian nervous system." J Neurosci 12(6), 1992, 2288-302.

      [22] Bernal, J., "Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function." Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3(3), 2007, 249-59.

      [23] Morte, B., M. A. Iniguez, P. I. Lorenzo & J. Bernal, "Thyroid hormone-regulated expression of RC3/neurogranin in the immortalized hypothalamic cell line GT1-7." J Neurochem 69(3), 1997, 902-9.

      [24] Fraichard, A., O. Chassande, M. Plateroti, J. P. Roux, J. Trouillas, C. Dehay, C. Legrand, K. Gauthier, M. Kedinger, L. Malaval, B. Rousset & J. Samarut. "The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production." Embo J 16(14), 1997, 4412-20.

      [25] Konig, S. & V. Moura Neto, "Thyroid hormone actions on neural cells." Cell Mol Neurobiol 22(5-6), 2002, 517-44.

      [26] Gothe, S., Z. Wang, L. Ng, J. M. Kindblom, A. C. Barros, C. Ohlsson, B. Vennstrom & D. Forrest, "Mice devoid of all known thyroid hormone receptors are viable but exhibit disorders of the pituitary-thyroid axis, growth, and bone maturation." Genes Dev 13(10), 1999, 1329-41.

      [27] Fisher, D. A. & A. H. Klein, "Thyroid development and disorders of thyroid function in the newborn." N Engl J Med 304(12), 1981, 702-12.

      [28] Woods, R. J., A. K. Sinha & R. P. Ekins, "Uptake and metabolism of thyroid hormones by the rat foetus in early pregnancy." Clin Sci (Lond) 67(3), 1984, 359-63.

      [29] Klein, R. Z., J. D. Sargent, P. R. Larsen, S. E. Waisbren, J. E. Haddow & M. L. Mitchell, "Relation of severity of maternal hypothyroidism to cognitive development of offspring." J Med Screen 8(1), 2001, 18-20.

      [30] Fisher, D. A., J. H. Dussault, J. Sack & I. J. Chopra, "Ontogenesis of hypothalamic--pituitary--thyroid function and metabolism in man, sheep, and rat." Recent Prog Horm Res 33, 1976, 59-116.

      [31] Solis, J. C. & C. Valverde, "[Neonatal hypothyroidism. pathophysiogenic, molecular and clinical aspects]." Rev Invest Clin 58(4), 2006, 318-34.

      [32] Thompson, C. C. & G. B. Potter, "Thyroid hormone action in neural development." Cereb Cortex 10(10), 2000, 939-45.

      [33] Martinez, R. & F. C. Gomes, "Neuritogenesis induced by thyroid hormone-treated astrocytes is mediated by epidermal growth factor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways and involves modulation of extracellular matrix proteins." J Biol Chem 277(51), 2002, 49311-8.

      [34] Vara, H., B. Martinez, A. Santos & A. Colino, "Thyroid hormone regulates neurotransmitter release in neonatal rat hippocampus." Neuroscience 110(1), 2002, 19-28.

      [35] Lemkine G. F., A. R., G. Alfama, N. Turque, Z. Hassani, O. Alegria-Prévot, & G. L. J. Samarut, and B. A. Demeneix, "Adult neural stem cell cycling in vivo requires thyroid hormone and its alpha receptor." The FASEB Journal: 17, 2005.

      [36] Siegrist-Kaiser, C.A. et al., Thyroxine-dependent modulation of actin polym- erization in cultured astrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1990, 5296–5302

      [37] Farwell, A.P. and Dubord-Tomasetti, S.A., Thyroid hormone regulates the extracellular organization of laminin on astrocytes. Endocrinology 140, 1999, 5014–5021

      [38] Farwell, A. P., M. P. Tranter & J. L. Leonard, "Thyroxine-dependent regulation of integrin-laminin interactions in astrocytes." Endocrinology 136(9), 1995, 3909-15.

      [39] Legrand, J., Variations, en fonction de l’âge, de la réponse du cervelet a l’action morphogénétique de la thyroïde chez le rat. Arch. Anat. Microsc. Morphol. Exp. 56, 1967, 291–308

      [40] Legrand, J., Morphogenetic actions of thyroid hormones. Trends Neurosci. 2, 1979, 234–236

      [41] Koibuchi, N. and Chin, W.W., Mechanisms underlying neurological ab- normalities resulting from developmental hypothyroidism. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diabet. 6, 1999, 26–32

      [42] Nicholson, J.L. and Altman, J., The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the development of the rat cerebellar cortex. II. Synaptogenesis in the molecular layer. Brain Res. 44, 1972, 25–36

      [43] Nicholson, J.L. and Altman, J., Synaptogenesis in the rat cerebellum: effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Science 176, 1972, 530–532

      [44] Nicholson, J.L. and Altman, J., The effects of early hypo- and hyperthyroidism on development of rat cerebellar cortex. I. Cell proliferation and differentiation. Brain Res. 44, 1972, 13–23

      [45] Legrand, J., Effects of thyroid hormone on brain development, with particular emphasis on glial cells and myelination. In Multidisciplinary Approach to Brain Development (Di Benedetta, C. et al., eds) Elsevier, 1980, 279–292.

      [46] Hajós, F. et al., Effect of thyroid de- ficiency on the synaptic organization of the rat cerebellar cortex. Brain Res. 50, 1973, 387–401

      [47] Koibuchi N, Chin WW., Thyroid hormone action and brain development. Trends Endocrinol Metab 11, 2000, 123-128.

      [48] Buyukgebiz, A., "Congenital hypothyroidism clinical aspects and late consequences." Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 1 Suppl 2, 2003 185-90; discussion 190.

      [49] Goodman, J. H. & M. E. Gilbert, "Modest thyroid hormone insufficiency during development induces a cellular malformation in the corpus callosum: a model of cortical dysplasia." Endocrinology 148(6), 2007, 2593-7.

      [50] Morreale de Escobar, G., M. J. Obregon & F. Escobar del Rey, "Fetal and maternal thyroid hormones." Horm Res 26(1-4), 1987, 12-27.

      [51] Rivas, M. & J. R. Naranjo, "Thyroid hormones, learning and memory." Genes Brain Behav 6 Suppl 1, 2007, 40-4.

      [52] Oppenheimer, J. H. & H. L. Schwartz, "Molecular basis of thyroid hormone- dependent brain development." Endocr Rev 18(4), 1997, 462-75.

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Cisne, R., Justo, R., & Migowski, E. (2016). Influence of thyroid hormones on nervous system development – brief review. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 82-85.