Use of Azolla as a growing medium component in the nursery production of olive trees

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Peat is used in olive-tree nurseries as a component in commercial growing media. Environmental and economic pressures are questioning the use of peat as a component of substrates. In order to remain competitive and to satisfy environmental concerns, it is necessary to identify and evaluate possible alternatives to peat. This study involves the use of Azolla filiculoides, as a growing media component in olive nurseries (Olea europaea L.) for containerized plants. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of Azolla (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100 %). Were determined some physical and chemical properties of media, the growth, the physiological parameters and nutritional state of olive plants. The physical and chemical properties of the media were significantly affected by the Azolla content. Nursery-produced olive plants grown in substrates supplemented by 50 % Azolla displayed linear growth and the total biomass production greater than those of the control medium. The research indicated that Azolla might be suitable substrate component for olive plants grown in containers.


  • Keywords


    Azolla Filiculoides Lam.; Substrates; Physico-Chemical Properties; Olea Europaea L.; Growth Parameters.

  • References


      [1] P.Vossen, Olive Oil: History, Production, and Characteristics of the World's Classic Oils, HortScience 42 (2007) 1093-1100.

      [2] A. Cimato, Olive Nursery Production and Plant Production Techniques. COI (Ed.) Madrid, (2008) (Available online with updates at http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/web).

      [3] M. Benito, A. Masaguer, R. De Antonio, A. Moliner, Use of pruning waste compost as a component in soilless growing media, Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 597-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.06.006.

      [4] F. Ferrini, F.P. Nicese. Effect of compost-based substrate on growth and leaf physiology of Acer campestre and Cornus Alba potted plants, Advances in Horticultural Science 19 (2005) 76-80.

      [5] A. Cimato, G. Sani, C. Attilio, L. Marzi, Polvere di cocco in vivaio nei substrati artificiali degli olivi, L’Informatore Agrario 44 (2001) 53-55.

      [6] S. Mugnai, E. Azzarello, E. Masi, C. Pandolfi, S. Mancuso, Investigating the possibility of peat substitution in olive nurseries with green compost. Advances in Horticultural Science 21 (2007) 96-100.

      [7] L. Nasini, P. Proietti, F. Famiani, M. Boco, M.A. Balduccini, Potential use in olive nurseries of olive cake and compost from animal manure or urban rubbish. Acta Horticulturae. 949 (2012) 431-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2012.949.64.

      [8] M. Tattini, P. Bertoni, M.L. Traversi, P. Nappi, Waste materials as potting media in olive pot production. Acta Horticulturae 286 (1990) 121-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.1990.286.23.

      [9] R. Prelli, (avec la collaboration M. Boudrie) Les fougères et plantes alliées de France et d’Europe occidentale, Belin, Paris, (2002) 432.

      [10] A. Pabby, R. Prasanna, P.K. Singh,. Azolla-Anabaena Symbiosis-From Traditional Agriculture to Biotechnology, Indian Journal of Biotechnology 2 (2003) 26-37.

      [11] V. Pandey, Phytoremediation of heavy metals from fly ash pond by Azolla caroliniana, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 82 (2012) 8-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.05.002.

      [12] M. Mirhosseini, A., Mohammadi Torkashvand, A. Mahboub Khomami, The possibility using Azolla compost as cultivation bed on the Growth of Dracaena, Annals of Biological Research 3 (2013) 3760-3764.

      [13] P. Carlozzi, F. Favilli, B.Pushparaj, W. Balloni, Biomass production and N2-fixation by Azolla filiculoides in outdoor mass culture, Proceedings International Congress on Renewable Energy Sources, Terol. S. (Ed.). Madrid (1986) 175-182.

      [14] P. Violante, P. Adamo, Determinazione del grado di reazione (pH), Metodi di Analisi Chimica del Suolo,F. Angeli (Ed.) Roma (2000) 10-13.

      [15] C. Gessa, C. Ciavatta, La capacità di scambio cationico con bario cloruro e trietanolammina, Metodi di Analisi Chimica del Suolo, F. Angeli (Ed.) Roma (2000) 1–31.

      [16] A. Pardossi, L. Incrocci, P. Marzialetti, C. Bibbiani, I substrati e la coltivazione delle piante in contenitore, Fertilitas Agrorum 3 (1) (2009) 22-31.

      [17] O. Verdonck, R. Penninck, M. De Boodt, The physical properties of different horticultural growing substrates, Acta Horticulturae 150 (1983) 155–160.

      [18] M. Tattini P. Mariotti, P. Fiorino, Fertirrigazione, crescita e analisi fogliare di piante di olivo auto radicate (CV “Frangivento”) allevate in contenitore, Rivista della Ortofrutticoltura Italiana 70 (1986) 439-445.

      [19] C. Faraloni, I. Cutino, R. Petruccelli, A.R. Leva, S. Lazzeri, G. Torzillo,. Chlorophyll fluorescence technique as a rapid tool for in vitro screening of olive cultivars” (Olea europaea L.) tolerant to drought stress, Environmental and Experimental Botany 73, (2011) 49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.10.011.

      [20] M. Tattini, R. Gucci, M.A. Coradeschi, C. Ponzio and J.D. Edvard, Growth, gas exchange and ion content in Olea europaea plants during salinity stress and subsequent relief, Physiologia Plantarum 95 (1995) 203–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb00828.x.

      [21] E. Carmona, M. Abad, Aplicación del compost en viveros y semilleros, Compostaje, Moreno J.and Moral R. (Eds), Madrid (2008) 399-424.

      [22] T.E. Bilderback, S.L. Warren, Jr.J.S. Owen, J.P. Albano, Healthy substrates need physicals, HortTechnology 15 (2005) 747–751.

      [23] A. Morettini, Ambiente climatico e pedologico, Olivicoltura REDA (Ed.) Roma (1972) 219-246.

      [24] F. Herrera, J.E. Castillo, A.F. Chica, L. Lopez-Bellido,. Use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as a growing medium in the nursery production of tomato plants, Bioresource Technology 9 (2008) 287–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.12.042.

      [25] K. Angelopoulos, B. Dichio, C. Xiloyannis, Inhibition of photosynthesis in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) during water stress and dewatering, Journal of Experimental Botany 47 (1996) 1093-1100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.8.1093.

      [26] H. Lepeduš, M. Hoško, T.Z. Pfeiffer, M.M. Skendrović Babojelić, C.V. Žanić, Preliminary study on the photosynthetic performance in leaves of two olive cultivars, Peridicum Biologorum 11 (2010) 259-261.

      [27] R. Fernández-Escobar, Fertilization, El Cultivo del Olivo, Barranco D., Fernández-Escobar R. Rallo L. (Eds.) Madrid (2001) 255-284.

      [28] M. Vincenzini, M.C. Margheri, C. Sili, Outdoor mass culture of Azolla spp.: yields and efficiencies of nitrogen fixation, Plant and Soil 86 (1995) 57-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02185025.

      [29] A. Arora, P.K. Singh, Comparison of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential of Azolla SPP, Biomass and Bioenergy 24 (2003) 175-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00133-2.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 4660
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijbas.v4i4.4660




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.