Mechanical properties and microstructural investigation of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets/ nano-magnesium oxide composites


  • A I. Alateyah Qassim University
  • F H. Latief Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University



Polypropylene, Exfoliated Graphite Nano platelets, Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles, Mechanical Prop-Erties, XRD, and SEM.


Polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets composites reinforced with a low concentration of nano-magnesia have been successfully fabricated, using injection molding machine. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites were investigated, in the present study. The XRD patterns of the composites showed the peaks of xGnP and n-MgO, where the intensity of the xGnP peaks became stronger with increasing the concentration of xGnP added into polypropylene matrix. In addition, the SEM micrographs revealed a good dispersion of fillers within the matrix. The results showed that increasing the amount of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets up to 10 wt. % resulted in increasing the composite flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness up to 35% and 91%, 6.7%, respectively, compared to the monolithic polypropylene.




[1] N. Zhao, H. Rödel, C. Herzberg, S.-L. Gao, and S. Krzywinski, "Stitched glass/PP composite. Part I: Tensile and impact properties," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 635-643, 2009.

[2] M. Tufail, "Processing investigation and optimization for hybrid thermoplastic composites," Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing, Mineral, Metallurgy, Material, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 185-189, 2007.

[3] C. Chuai, K. Almdal, L. Poulsen, and D. Plackett, "Conifer fibers as reinforcing materials for polypropyleneâ€based composites," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 80, no. 14, pp. 2833-2841, 2001.

[4] C. Albano, J. Gonzalez, M. Ichazo, and D. Kaiser, "Thermal stability of blends of polyolefins and sisal fiber," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 179-190, 1999.

[5] A. Long, C. Wilks, and C. Rudd, "Experimental characterisation of the consolidation of a commingled glass/polypropylene composite," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1591-1603, 2001.

[6] A. Shalwan, A. Alateyah, B. Aldousiri, and M. Alajmi, "Thermal and Nanoindentation Behaviours of Layered Silicate Reinforced Recycled GF-12 Nanocomposites," Journal of Materials Science Research, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 10, 2016.

[7] H. M. Da Costa, V. D. Ramos, and M. C. Rocha, "Analysis of thermal properties and impact strength of PP/SRT, PP/EPDM and PP/SRT/EPDM mixtures in single screw extruder," Polymer Testing, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 498-503, 2006.

[8] T. Gong, S.-P. Peng, R.-Y. Bao, W. Yang, B.-H. Xie, and M.-B. Yang, "Low percolation threshold and balanced electrical and mechanical performances in polypropylene/carbon black composites with a continuous segregated structure," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 348-357, 2016.

[9] P. Vilímová, J. Tokarský, P. Peikertová, K. M. Kutláková, and T. PlaÄek, "Influence of thermal and UV treatment on the polypropylene/graphite composite," Polymer Testing, vol. 52, pp. 46-53, 2016.

[10] L. Zhang, M. Kai, and K. Liew, "Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical performance of CNT-reinforced cementitious composites at elevated temperatures," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 95, pp. 286-293, 2017.

[11] D. Pedrazzoli, A. Pegoretti, and K. Kalaitzidou, "Synergistic effect of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets and short glass fiber on the mechanical and interfacial properties of epoxy composites," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 98, pp. 15-21, 2014.

[12] S. N. Alam and L. Kumar, "Mechanical properties of aluminium based metal matrix composites reinforced with graphite nanoplatelets," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 667, pp. 16-32, 2016.

[13] M. Karevan, S. Eshraghi, R. Gerhardt, S. Das, and K. Kalaitzidou, "Effect of processing method on the properties of multifunctional exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets/polyamide 12 composites," Carbon, vol. 64, pp. 122-131, 2013.

[14] Y. Li, H. Zhang, H. Porwal, Z. Huang, E. Bilotti, and T. Peijs, "Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of in-situ exfoliated graphene/epoxy nanocomposites," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 95, pp. 229-236, 2017.

[15] F. Wang, L. T. Drzal, Y. Qin, and Z. Huang, "Enhancement of fracture toughness, mechanical and thermal properties of rubber/epoxy composites by incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 87, pp. 10-22, 2016.

[16] T. Rath and Y. Li, "Nanocomposites based on polystyrene-b-poly (ethylene-r-butylene)-b-polystyrene and exfoliated graphite nanoplates: effect of nanoplatelet loading on morphology and mechanical properties," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1995-2002, 2011.

[17] D. Chung, "Review graphite," Journal of materials science, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1475-1489, 2002.

[18] K. Kalaitzidou, H. Fukushima, and L. T. Drzal, "A new compounding method for exfoliated graphite–polypropylene nanocomposites with enhanced flexural properties and lower percolation threshold," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 2045-2051, 2007.

[19] S. Kim, J. Seo, and L. T. Drzal, "Improvement of electric conductivity of LLDPE based nanocomposite by paraffin coating on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 581-587, 2010.

[20] M. Mantilaka, H. Pitawala, D. Karunaratne, and R. Rajapakse, "Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide from dolomite via poly (acrylate) stabilized magnesium hydroxide colloids," Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 443, pp. 201-208, 2014.

[21] H. Abdizadeh, R. Ebrahimifard, and M. A. Baghchesara, "Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of nano MgO reinforced Al composites manufactured by stir casting and powder metallurgy methods: A comparative study," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 56, pp. 217-221, 2014.

[22] A. I. Alateyah, H. N. Dhakal, and Z. Y. Zhang, "Processing, Properties, and Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Layer Silicates: A Review " Advances in Polymer Technology, vol. 32, no. 4, 2013.

[23] Y. Geng, S. J. Wang, and J.-K. Kim, "Preparation of graphite nanoplatelets and graphene sheets," Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 336, no. 2, pp. 592-598, 2009.

[24] Pingan Song, Zhenhu Cao, Yuanzheng Cai, Liping Zhao, Zhengping Fang, Shenyuan Fu, " Fabrication of exfoliated graphene-based polypropylene nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties," Polymer, vol. 52, pp. 4001-4010, 2011.

[25] F. S. AlHumaidan, A. Hauser, M. S. Rana, H. M.S. Lababidi, M. Behbehani, "Changes in asphaltene structure during thermal cracking of residual oils: XRD study," Fuel, vol. 150, pp. 558-564, 2015.

[26] A. I. Alateyah, H. N. Dhakal, and Z. Y. Zhang, "Water absorption behaviour, mechanical and thermal properties of vinyl ester matrix nanocomposites based on layered silicate," Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 53, pp. 1-17, 2014.

[27] S. O. Han, M. Karevan, M. A. Bhuiyan, J. H. Park, and K. Kalaitzidou, " Effect of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of poly(lactic acid) biocomposites reinforced with kenaf fibers", Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 47 (8), pp 3535–3543, 2012.