Reinforcement alternatives for beams under cyclic load


  • Louay A. Aboul-Nour Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt
  • Ragab S. Mahmoud Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt
  • Mahmoud A. Khater Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt
  • Nesma M. Moselhy Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt





Finite Element Model, RC Beam, Flexural Behavior, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars, Cyclic Load.


The major cause of concrete structures deterioration is steel corrosion. Consequently, this situation has led researchers to study and test other reinforcement alternatives that are noncorrosive in nature. Rapidly emerging developments in the field of material technology has led to the development of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). This research focuses on the flexural behavior of carbon, glass, aramid, and basalt (CFRP, GFRP, AFRP, and BFRP) fiber reinforced polymers bars as alternatives to the traditional steel reinforcement in concrete. The study involves a nonlinear numerical finite element analysis of a simply supported reinforced concrete beams subjected to cyclic loading, where the ANSYS program is utilized. The numerical model verification is executed on the experimental beams for ensuring the efficiency of ma-terial models, cyclic loading and various elements. Hysteresis curves are produced for each beam and analyzed, where loads, deflections, and cracks propagation are inspected and discussed. The results reveal that, the full replacement of traditional steel bars with CFRP bars gives the greatest increase in the ultimate load capacity by 38.5%. Also, other results are summarized in this paper.



[1] Hakan Nordin, “Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Structures with Prestressed Near Surface Mounted CFRP Rodsâ€, licentiate thesis 2003:25, Lulea university of technology, Division of Structural Engineering, S-971 87 Lulea Sweden, (2003).

[2] ACI 440.1R-06. Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete reinforced with FRP Bars, Reported by ACI Committee 440, (2006).

[3] Williams B, Kodur V, Green M, Bisby L. “Fire endurance of fiber-reinforced polymer strengthened concrete T-beamsâ€, J. ACI Struct., Vol. 105, Issue 1, Jan./Feb. (2008), pp. 60-67.

[4] R.A. Hawileh, M.Z. Naser “Thermal-stress analysis of RC beams reinforced with GFRP barsâ€, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 43, Issue 5, (2012), pp. 2135–2142, available online:

[5] M. Bazli, H. Ashrafi, A.V. Oskouei, “Experiments and probabilistic models of bond strength between GFRP bar and different types of concrete under aggressive environmentsâ€, Constr. Build. Mater. Vol.148, (2017), pp. 429–443, available online:

[6] H. Ashrafi, M. Bazli, A. Vatani Oskouei, L. Bazli, “Effect of sequential exposure to UV radiation and water vapor condensation and extreme temperatures on the mechanical properties of GFRP barsâ€, J. Compos. Constr., Vol.22, (2018), pp. 04017047-1- 04017047-17, available online:

[7] Nayera Ahmed A. Mohamed, “Strength and Drift Capacity of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Shear Wallsâ€, Doctoral Thesis, Sherbrooke University, Canada, (2013).

[8] R N. M. Norazman, M. H. A. Boestamam, M. A. Yusof, “Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beamâ€, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 2, February (2013), pp. 6-10, available online:

[9] Qusay W. Ahmed, Ali Laftah Abbas and Hafeth I. Naji, “Finite Element Simulation of Continuous FRP Reinforced Concrete Beamsâ€. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 14, (2019), pp. 6419-6424, available online:

[10] Maher A. Adam, M. Said, A. A. Mahmoud, A. S. Shanour, “Analytical and experimental flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymers barsâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 84, (2015), pp. 354–366, available online:

[11] S. El-Gamal. B. AbdulRahman. And B. Benmokrane. “Deflection Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Different Types of GFRP Barsâ€, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, CICE 2010, (2011), pp. 279-282.

[12] Mohmed M. Ahmed, Atif M. Abdel Hafez, Kamal A. Assaf, Abdel Kader A. Haridy, “Flexural Behavior of Basalt FRP RC Beams under Repeated Loadâ€, Journal of Engineering Sciences; Vol. 42, Issue 5, Sep. (2014), p1179.

[13] Wenjie Ge., Jiwen Zhang, Dafu Cao., Yongming Tu., “Flexural behaviors of hybrid concrete beams reinforced with BFRP bars and steel barsâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 87, July (2015), pp. 28-37, available online:

[14] Jin Chen, “Performance of a transfer beam with hybrid reinforcement of CFRP bars and steel bars under reversed cyclic loadingâ€, Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, Vol.24(4), July (2017), available online:

[15] Ahmed El Refai, Farid Abed, Abdullah Al-Rahmani, “Structural performance and serviceability of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid (GFRP and steel) barsâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 96, 15 October (2015), pp. 518-529, available online:

[16] Abdel, A., Elsayed, Z., Ahmed, M.M., Salaheldin, H., & Hassan, M.I., “Behavior of Beams Reinforced with Different Types of Bars from Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP), Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and High Tensile Steel (HTS) Under Static Loadâ€, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), Vol. 12, Issue 4 Ver. V Jul. - Aug. (2015), pp. 66-97, available online: https://Doi:10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.1517653.

[17] Rania Salih Mohammed, Zhou Fangyuan, “Numerical Investigation of the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beam Reinforced with FRP Barsâ€, Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 11, (2019), pp. 2296-2308, available online:

[18] J.Karthick, Dr. K.Natarajan, and Ramachandran Murugan, “Cyclic Load Behaviour of RC T - Beams internally Reinforced with GFRP Reinforcementsâ€, International Journal of Advanced Research in Education Technology (IJARET), Vol. 1, Issue 1, July - Sept. (2014), pp. 11-17. available online:

[19] Sinan Abdulhkaleq, Yaseen, “Flexural Behavior of Self Compacting Concrete T-Beams Reinforced with AFRPâ€, Eurasian Journal of Science & Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 2, December (2018), pp. 178-191, available online:

[20] A. Buyukkaragoz, I. Kalkan, J. H. Lee, “A Numerical Study of the Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with AFRP Barsâ€, Strength of Materials Journal, Vol. 45(6), (2013), pp. 716– 729, available online:

[21] Mohamed Saafi, HoussamToutanji, “Flexural capacity of prestressed concrete beams reinforced with aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) rectangular tendonsâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 5, 1 July (1998), pp. 245-249, available online:

[22] Sinan Abdulhkaleq, Yaseen & Muhammad Ali Ihsan, “Finite Element Modeling of High Strength Self-Compacting Concrete T Beams under Flexural Load Reinforced By ARFP†Eurasian Journal of Science & Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 4, June (2019), pp. 14-27, available online: https://doi: 10.23918/eajse.v4i4p14.

[23] R. Vidya Sagar, B.K. Raghu Prasad, “Damage limit states of reinforced concrete beams subjected to incremental cyclic loading using relaxation ratio analysis of AE parametersâ€, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 35, (2012), pp. 139–148, available online:

[24] F. K. Abdelsayed, M. H. Ahmed, K. H. Abdelkareem and M.H. Soghair, “Numerical Study of R.C. Bridge Beams under Static and Cyclic Loadingâ€, Journal of Engineering Sciences, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, Vol. 40, No. 1, January (2013), pp. 49-65, available online:

View Full Article:

How to Cite

A. Aboul-Nour, L., S. Mahmoud, R., A. Khater, M., & M. Moselhy, N. (2020). Reinforcement alternatives for beams under cyclic load. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 9(2), 350–358.
Received 2020-01-23
Accepted 2020-03-14
Published 2020-04-03