Language Typology Trace Based on Motion Events: Javanese Spoken by English Learners


  • Riski Lestiono
  • . .



motion events, Austronesian languages, language typology, Javanese, English learners


This study aimed at identifying the ways Javanese, one of Austronesian languages, speakers expressed motion events, either using manner-incorporating sentences, path-incorporating sentences, or equipollently framing manner and path in the same predication position. The investigated speakers were English learners. Furthermore, the study investigated whether language contact played a role in the language change. After analyzing data from Javanese speakers learning English, it was revealed that Javanese consultants used mostly manner verbs, behaving more like a satellite-framed language, no longer an equipollently-framed. Language contact played a role in the tendency alteration of Javanese speakers to produce manner verbs in the predicate position caused by their learning English, which is a satellite-framed language with major construction of manner-incorporating sentences. The result of the study on language typology of Javanese spoken by English learners could end up showing that language contact in the multilingual contexts might contribute to any language variation.




[1] Appel, R. & Muysken, P. (2005). Language contact and bilingualism. New York: Edward Arnold.

[2] Chen, L. & Guo, J. (2008). Motion events in Chinese novels: Evidence for an equipollently-framed language. Journal of Pragmatics.

[3] Matras, Y. (2009). Language contact. UK: Cambidge University Press.

[4] Mayer, M. (1969). Frog, Where Are You? New York: Dial Press.

[5] Sankoff, G. (2001). Linguistic outcomes of language contact. In Peter Trudgill, J. Chambers & N. Schilling-Estes (ed.), Handbook of sociolinguistics 2001, 638-668. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

[6] Slobin, Dan I. (1996). Two Ways to Travel: Verbs of Motion in English and Spanish. In: Shibatani, M., Thompson, S.A. (Eds.), Grammatical Constructions: Their Form and Meaning. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 195–220.

[7] Slobin, Dan I. (2004). The Many Ways to Search for a Frog. In Sven Strömqvist and Ludo Verhoeven (eds.), Relating Events in Narrative. Typological and Contextual Perspectives, 219-257. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

[8] Talmy, Leonard. (1985). Lexicalization Patterns: Semantic Structure in Lexical Forms. In: Shopen, T, editor. Language Typology and Syntactic Description, I: Clause Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[9] Talmy, Leonard. (1991). Path to Realization: A Typology of Event Conflation. Paper presented at the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. by Laurel A. Sutton, Christopher Johnson and Ruth Shields, 480-520. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

[10] Talmy, Leonard. (2000b). Toward a Cognitive Semantics, volume II: Typology and Process in Concept Structuring. i-viii, 1-495. Cambridge: MIT Press.

[11] Talmy, L. (2008). Main Verb Properties and Equipollent Framing. In J. Guo, E. Lieven, N. Budwig, S. Ervin-Tripp, K. Nakamura and S. Özçalişkan (Eds.), Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Psychology of Language: Research in the Tradition of Dan Isaac Slobin (pp. 389–402). London: Psychology Press.

[12] Webcorp. (2010). Web as corpus. (January 29, 2015)

View Full Article:

How to Cite

Lestiono, R., & ., . (2019). Language Typology Trace Based on Motion Events: Javanese Spoken by English Learners. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 8(1.9), 682–686.
Received 2019-11-04
Accepted 2019-11-04