Construction of Attitude Towards Punctuality Scale for University Students and Relationships to CSE and FTP

  • Authors

    • Duangduen Bhanthumnavina
    • Duchduen Bhanthumnavinb
    • Bung-On Sorodc
  • Attitude Towards Punctuality (ATP), University Students, Core Self-Evaluation (CSE), Future time perspective (FTP), Factor Analysis.
  • Time is essential in the modern industrial-technology society. In order to enhance time management skills in university students, Attitude toward punctuality Scale (ATP) was constructed. There were four studies with the total sample of 1,325 university students in Thailand. Eighty-three items were constructed, but only 36 items were selected by a group of experts. A six \unit rating scale accompanied each of the item, ranging from 1 “not true at all†to 6 “extremely trueâ€.  In study1 with 200 students, 31 out of 36 items met the criteria for item quality.  Results from EFA in study 2 using new 500 students revealed a three-factor model (5 items for cognitive aspect, 4 items for behavioral intention aspect, and 3 items for affective aspect) with the total of 12 items and 59.303% of the total variance accounted for. In study 3 using another 300 students, this model was confirmed by CFA. In study 4 using 225 students, it was found that CSE and FTP were positively and significantly related to the newly constructed ATP (r = .357 and .256, respectively). Furthermore, ATP could predict punctual behavior beyond CSE and FTP for 26.500% with the total of 38.40%. The importance of ATP was discussed. Future experimental studies, as well as, possible intervention programs are suggested.  


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      Attitude Towards Punctuality Scale (12 items)

      AT28 The person who comes on time is rather stupid because (s)he knows that waiting for other is inevitable. (Cog -)

      AT27 When going for a special lecture, one can come at any time, punctuality is not necessary. (Cog -)

      AT29 I have no anxiety even though I came late at task group meeting. (Aff -)

      AT34 If I have to rent a room, I expect to often receive notice for late payment. (Cog -)

      AT33 If I have to go to a special lecture, I usually go slowly without hurry (Int -)

      AT20 I usually have no feeling even when a friend comment about my failure to keep an appointment. (Aff -)

      AT25 I am a simple and relaxed person so I have less intention to be on time. (Int - )

      AT24 Even though, I am usually late for appointment with my friends, I do not intent to do better. (Int -)

      AT17 I think that if I arrive late for group work, it is not that important. (Cog -)

      AT7 If I can be on time to myself, I will feel proud of it. (Aff +)

      AT8 I am pleased to be able to work according to the schedule. (Aff +)

      AT3 I believe that self-training to be punctual in studying is important for my future work life. (Cog +)

      This summated rating scale, each item accompanied with 6-unit rating ranges from 1= “not true at all†to 6 = “Extremely trueâ€. Negative worded items are first 8 items, must be reversed the scores.

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  • How to Cite

    Bhanthumnavina, D., Bhanthumnavinb, D., & Sorodc, B.-O. (2018). Construction of Attitude Towards Punctuality Scale for University Students and Relationships to CSE and FTP. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.38), 1319-1322.