Taxonomizing Building Forms and Characteristics for Urban Scale Virtual Reality 3D Models
Keywords:Use about five key words or phrases in alphabetical order, Separated by Semicolon
Virtual reality (VR) technology allows urban environments to be experienced through a full-scale digital immersion. However, as the virtual environment (VE) in VR is set to be in full-scale by default, what can be considered as adequate details for architectural operations in large VEs is therefore ambiguous. This paper aimed to taxonomize building forms and characteristics represented as level of details (LOD) in creating operational urban scale 3D models for VR. A total of N=96 respondents participated in a survey, in which they were requested to rank the building characteristics critical to be represented in an urban scale VE. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was then used to factorize these characteristics which resulted to â€˜geometric extrusionâ€™ and â€˜distinctionâ€™. These components were then used to define the taxonomy of urban scale 3D models for VR.
 Appleyard, D. (1969). Why Buildings are Known: A Predictive Tool for Architects and Planners. Environment and Behavior, 1(2), 131-156
 Biljecki, F., Ledoux, F., & Stoter, J. (2016). An Improved LOD Specification for 3D Building Models. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 25-37.
 Ã‡Ã¶ltekin, A., Lokka, I., & Zahner, M. (2016). On the Usability and Usefulness of 3D (Geo)Visualizations - A Focus on Virtual Reality Environments. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 387-392.
 Diao, J., Xu, C., Jia, A., & Liu, Y. (2017). Virtual Reality and Simulation Technology Application in 3D Urban Landscape Environment Design. BoletÃn TÃ©cnico, 72-79.
 Gary W. Evans, Catherine Smith, & Kathy Pezdek. (1982). Cognitive Maps and Urban Form. Journal of American Planning Association, 48(2), 232â€“244.
 Horne, M., Podevyn, M., & Thompson, E. M. (2013). An Overview of Virtual City Modelling: Emerging Organisational Issues. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689â€“1699.
 Kobayashi, Y. (2006). Photogrammetry and 3D City Modeling. Digital Architecture and Construction, 90, 209-218.
 Luebke, D., Watson, B., Cohen, J. D., Reddy, M., & Varshney, A. (2002). Level of Details for 3D Graphics (1st Edition). New York: Elsevier Science Inc.
 Shiode, N. (2001). 3D Urban Models: Recent Developments in the Digital Modeling of Urban Environments in Three-Dimensions. GeoJournal, 52(3), 263â€“269.
 StavriÄ‡, M. (2013). The Use of Scale Models in Architecture. In Architectural Scale Models in the Digital Age (pp. 41â€“83). Springer-Verlag/Wien.
 Stein, J. (2015, August 6). Inside the Box: The Surprising Joy of Virtual Reality. Time Magazine (pp. 30-39). New York: Time Inc.
 Zadeh, F. A., & Sulaiman, A. B. (2010). Dynamic Street Environment. Local Environment, 15(5), 433â€“452. Limited, Alexandrine Press and Contributors., United States and Canada.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).