Does Servant Leadership Behavior Induce Positive Behaviors? A Conceptual Study of Servant Leadership, Psychological Safety and Turnover Intention

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    In this paper, we examine how servant leadership and psychological safety may enlighten our understanding of human mechanisms that affect follower outcomes. Servant leadership style as penned by Robert Greenleaf that servant leaders guide followers to adopt the behavior of their leaders by putting others needs above their own. From emerging research on servant leadership, we proposed a model contending that servant leaders increase employees’ psychological safety that organization is a safe place to speak up ideas, opinions and take decisions, which directly influences Employees’ turnover intention. As proposed, servant leadership will be negatively related to Employees’ turnover intention and positively related to psychological safety. Psychological safety will mediate the relationship between servant leadership and turnover intention.

     


  • Keywords


    Servant Leadership, Psychological Safety, Turnover Intention.

  • References


      [1] Ahmed, A., Khuwaja, F. M., Brohi, N. A., & Othman, I. bin L. (2018). Organizational Factors and Organizational Performance: A Resource-Based view and Social Exchange Theory Viewpoint. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(3), 579–599. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i3/3951

      [2] Akhtar, M. S., Salleh, L. M., Ghafar, N. H., Khurro, M. A., & Mehmood, S. A. (2018). Conceptualizing the impact of perceived organizational support and psychological contract fulfillment on employees’ paradoxi- cal intentions of stay and leave. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(5), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i2.5.10045

      [3] Akhtar, M. S., Salleh, L. M., Mahmood, S. A., Brohi, N. A., & Ali, R. M. (2017). Pull and push impact of perceived career growth and psychological contract breach on employees’ intentions of stay and leave, conceptualization of paradoxical outcomes. In INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLIED SCIENCES 2017. ETSS Management, Malaysia.

      [4] Akhtar, M. S., Salleh, L. M., & Mehmood, S. adil. (2017). Conceptualization of Paradoxical Outcomes on Employees’ Intention to Stay and Intentions to Leave. Science International, 29(6), 1215–1218.

      [5] Barbuto, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale Development and Construct Clarification of Servant Leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 300–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106287091

      [6] Black, G. L. (2010). Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate. Servant Leadership and School Climate, 13(4), 437–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632430220143024

      [7] Brohi, N. A., Abdullah, M. M. Bin, Khan, A. M., Dahri, A. S., Ali, R., & Markhand, K. H. (2018). Communication Quality, Job Clarity, Supervisor Support and Job Satisfaction among Nurses in Pakistan: The Moderating Influence of Fairness Perception. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i5/4078

      [8] Brohi, N. A., Jantan, A. H., Sobia, Akhtar, M. S., & Pathan, T. G. (2018). Does Servant Leadership Style Induce Positive Organizational Behaviors? A Conceptual Study of Servant Leadership, Psychological Capital, and Intention to Quit Relationship. Journal of International Business and Management, 1(1), 1–15.

      [9] Brohi, N. A., Pathan, T. G., Khuhro, M. A., Mahmood, S. A., Akhtar, M. S., & Tee, K. K. (2016). Do They Exist? An Empirical Study of New Human Resource Roles. In INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 2016 (ICETSS 2016), KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA.

      [10] Brohi, N. A., Pathan, T. G., Khuhro, M. A., Mehmood, S. A., Akhtar, M. S., & Tee, K. K. (2017). An Empirical Study of Contemprory HR Roles in Malaysian Context. Science International, 29(6), 1207–1214.

      [11] Chan, S. C. H., & Mak, W. (2014). The impact of servant leadership and subordinates’ organizational tenure on trust in leader and attitudes. Personnel Review, 43(2), 272–287. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-08-2011-0125

      [12] Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.08.004

      [13] Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee Turnover: A Meta-Analysis and Review with Implications for Research. The Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.2307/258331

      [14] Dries, N. (2013). The psychology of talent management: A review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 272–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2013.05.001

      [15] Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–352. https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

      [16] Edmondson, A. C., & Lei, Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 23–43. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091305

      [17] Fuller, J. B., Morrison, R., Jones, L., Bridger, D., & Brown, V. (1999). The effects of psychological empowerment on transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(3), 389–391. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549909598396

      [18] Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). Who is the Servant-Leader? International Journal of Servant-Leadership, p17-22. https://doi.org/10.2307/2086496

      [19] Gregory Stone, A., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: a difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349–361. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730410538671

      [20] Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26(3), 463–488. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0000203435&partnerID=tZOtx3y1

      [21] Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2016). Do Ethical, Authentic, and Servant Leadership Explain Variance Above and Beyond Transformational Leadership? A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Management, XX(X), 14920631666546. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316665461

      [22] Hom, P., Lee, T. W., Shaw, J. D., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2017). One Hundred Years of Employee Turnover Theory and Research. Journal of Applied Psychology, (765), 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000103

      [23] Hunter, E. M., Neubert, M. J., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., Penney, L. M., & Weinberger, E. (2013). Servant leaders inspire servant followers: Antecedents and outcomes for employees and the organization. Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), 316–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.12.001

      [24] Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement At Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. https://doi.org/10.2307/256287

      [25] Kashyap, V., & Rangnekar, S. (2016). Servant leadership, employer brand perception, trust in leaders and turnover intentions: a sequential mediation model. Review of Managerial Science, 10(3), 437–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-014-0152-6

      [26] Krog, C. L., & Govender, K. (2015). The relationship between servant leadership and employee empowerment, commitment, trust and innovative behaviour: A project management perspective. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v13i1.712

      [27] Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., Wu, J., & Liao, C. (2015). Servant leadership: Validation of a short form of the SL-28. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 254–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.002

      [28] Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006

      [29] Mahembe, B., & Engelbrecht, A. S. (2014). The relationship between servant leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 40(1), 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v40i1.1107

      [30] Mehmood, S. A., Nadarajah, D., Akhtar, M. S., Brohi, N. A., & Khuhro, M. A. (2018). A Conceptual Framework Explaining the Impact of Perceived Career Growth and Organisational Justice on Intention to Stay Among City Traffic Police Lahore. International Journal of Engineering and Technology-UAE, 7(33), 22–28.

      [31] Miskel, C. G., Fevurly, R., & Stewart, J. (1979). Organizational Structures and Processes, Perceived School Effectiveness, Loyalty, and Job Satisfaction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 15(3), 97–118. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013131X7901500308

      [32] Parolini, J., Patterson, K., & Winston, B. (2009). Distinguishing between transformational and servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(3), 274–291. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730910949544

      [33] Peter Michael Blau. (1964). Social Exchange. Annual Reviews in Anthropology, 6(1), 255–281. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.06.100177.001351

      [34] Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603–609. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0037335

      [35] Qureshi, M. A., Brohi, N. A., Qureshi, J. A., Ahmed, A., Dahiri, A. S., & Pathan, T. G. (2018). Impact of Servant Leadership Style on Moral Identity and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Analysis using SEM-PLS Technique. In 2018 International Conference on Management, Leadership and Business IntelligenceAt: Houston, Texas USA.

      [36] Qureshi, M. A., Hamid, K. B. A., Jeihoony, P., Ali, R., Brohi, N. A., Magsi, R., & Shah, S. M. M. (2018). Is Supervisor Support Matter in Job Satisfaction? a Moderating Role of Fairness Perception Among Nurses in Pakistan. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 1–10.

      [37] Reed, L. L., Vidaver-Cohen, D., & Colwell, S. R. (2011). A New Scale to Measure Executive Servant Leadership: Development, Analysis, and Implications for Research. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3), 415–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0729-1

      [38] Rodriguez, B. (2016). Reducing Employee Turnover in Retail Environments: An Analysis of Servant Leadership Variables. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/2758

      [39] Ronald A Lindahl. (2010). Be a better leader, have a richer life. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls

      [40] Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of Servant Leadership Attributes: Developing Practical Model. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145–157. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730210424084

      [41] Shah, S. M. M., Ali, R., Dahri, A. S., Brohi, N. A., & Maher, Z. A. (2018). Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Nurses: Evidence from South Asian Perspective. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i5/4082

      [42] Shaw, J., & Newton, J. (2014). TEACHER RETENTION AND SATISFACTION WITH A. Education, 135(1), 101–106.

      [43] Spears, L. C. (2004). Practicing Servant Leadership. Leader to Leader.

      [44] van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 249–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9194-1

      [45] Whitaker, T. (2009). What Great Principals Do Differently. Education World, (812), 1. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin410.shtml


 

View

Download

Article ID: 26326
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.15.26326




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.