Prevalence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus among Patients and Healthcare Workers in Malaysian Public Hospital
Keywords:methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PVL, S. aureus
Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) has become a worldwide threat to public health. Recent reports showed an increasing numbers of Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by PVL-positive organisms worldwide which explain the need to carry out this study in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive Staphylococcus aureus among patients and healthcare workers in Malaysian Public Hospital. Collectively, 230 swabs were collected from the anterior nares of inpatients and healthcare workers at Sungai Buloh Hospital. The isolates were identified and characterized using conventional and molecular methods. From 230 samples collected, 23% (53/230) were detected as Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Out of the 53 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 2 (3.8%) were found to be PVL-positive Staphylococcus aureus (from patientâ€™s sample) and the remaining 51 (96.2%) isolates were PVL negative Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 53 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 40 (75.5%) were methicillin-sensitive and 13 (24.5%) were methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus. The finding of the prevalence of PVL-positive Staphylococcus aureus among patients and healthcare workers will provide awareness to the hospital authority to take action for prevention and control.
 Jenkins, B. An Diep, T. Mai, N. Vo, P. Warrener, J. Suzich, C. Kendall Stover, and B. Sellman, â€œDifferential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease,â€ MBio, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1â€“10, 2015.
 J. Kluytmans, A. van Belkum, and H. Verbrugh, â€œNasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks.,â€ Clin. Microbiol. Rev., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 505â€“20, 1997.
 G. L. Archer, â€œStaphylococcus aureus: A well-armed pathogen,â€ Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1179â€“1181, 1998.
 H. Wertheim, and D. Melles, â€œReview The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections,â€ vol. 5, no. December, pp. 751â€“762, 2005.
 Adler, V. Temper, C. S. Block, N. Abramson, and A. E. Moses, â€œPanton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus ,â€ Emerg. Infect. Dis., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1789â€“1790, 2006.
 J. Maier, H. Melzl, U. Reischl, I. Drubel, W. Witte, N. Lehn, H. Linde, â€œPanton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Germany associated with travel or foreign family origin,â€ Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 637â€“639, 2005.
 V. Chini, E. Petinaki, A. Foka, S. Paratiras, G. Dimitracopoulos, and I. Spiliopoulou, â€œSpread of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes during a 3-year period in Greece,â€ Clin. Microbiol. Infect., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29â€“34, 2006.
 M. Haarman and J. Knol, â€œQuantitative real-time PCR analysis of fecal Lactobacillus species in infants receiving a prebiotic infant formula,â€ Appl Env. Microbiol, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 2359â€“2365, 2006.
 Nrbsc.org. (2018). NRBSC â€“ Nture responsible center. [online] Available at: http://www.nrbsc.org [Accessed 16 May. 2017].
 Anon, (n.d.). NCBI Blast - BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. [online] Available at: https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi [Accessed 15 May. 2017].
 H. Al-Talib, H. Hasan, C. Y. Yean, S. M. Al-Ashwal, and M. Ravichandran, â€œFatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus: A case report,â€ Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 58â€“60, 2011.
 V. K. Neela, G. R. Ehsanollah, S. Zamberi, A. Van Belkum, and N. S. Mariana, â€œPrevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among carriage and invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Malaysia,â€ International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 3. 2009.
 Rayner and W. J. Munckhof, â€œAntibiotics currently used in the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus,â€ Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 35, no. SUPPL. 2. 2005.
 Betriu, I. Rodriguez-Avial, B.A Sanchez, M. Gomez, J. Ãlvarez, J Picazo, J. Aznar, E. Bouza, R. Cisterna, J. De Lomas, J. Moya, J. GarcÃa-RodrÃguez, A. Guerrero, M. De Anta, E. Perea, M. De la Rosa, and J. Ruiz, â€œIn vitro activities of tigecycline (GAR-936) against recently isolated clinical bacteria in Spain,â€ Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 892â€“895, 2002.
 F. Liaqat, A. Sheikh, J. Nazir, T. Hussain, M. Rabbani, A. Shaheen, and J. Muhammad, â€œReport-Isolation identification and control of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,â€ Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 997â€“1004, 2015.
 S. M. Edslev, M.-L. Clausen, T. Agner, M. Stegger, and P. S. Andersen, â€œGenomic analysis reveals different mechanisms of fusidic acid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus from Danish atopic dermatitis patients,â€ J. Antimicrob. Chemother., no. December, pp. 1â€“6, 2017.
 X. Liu, S. Zhang, and B. Sun, â€œSpoVG regulates cell wall metabolism and oxacillin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain N315,â€ Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 3455â€“3461, 2016.
 H. Al-Talib, A. Al-Khateeb, and H. Hassan, â€œAntimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Malaysian Tertiary Hospital,â€ vol. 22, no. November, pp. 0â€“3, 2015.
 M. C. Enright, N. P. J. Day, C. E. Davies, S. J. Peacock, and B. G. Spratt, â€œMultilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus,â€ J. Clin. Microbiol., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1008â€“1015, 2000.
 S. A. Havaei, S. Ohadian Moghadam, M. R. Pourmand, and J. Faghri, â€œPrevalence of genes encoding bi-component leukocidins among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,â€ Iran. J. Public Health, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 8â€“14, 2010.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).