Extrusion encapsulation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus coated by carrageenan – alginate with additional tofu waste flour prebiotic

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Survival phase of probiotic Lactobacillus bulgaricus, depends on its living conditions, which are processing stages, storage condition and acidity level in digestive tract. The severity states of environment and improper treatment may cause a reduction of probiotic viability in food products. Extrusion method was used to encapsulate the bacteria by using combination of encapsulating agents and a certain percentage of prebiotic in order to enhance the viability of probiotic in acid and cold condition. This study used two factors, which were capsule agents (alginate and carrageenan), and percentages of tofu waste flour (1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3%). The results showed that carrageenan was better in protecting probiotics at pH 2 with a total LAB of 4.23 LogCFU/gram, 42.5% viability of LAB and 41% efficiency encapsulation compared to alginate 3.92 LogCFU/gram, 38.2% viability and 37.9% efficiency encapsulation. The addition of tofu waste flour causes an increase in the growth of probiotic bacteria up to 10.5 LogCFU/gram. In the simulation conditions of gastric acid (pH 2), the combination of the use of carrageenan with the optimal percentage of tofu waste flour (3%) results in the most effective encapsulation conditions for probiotic viability and the highest yield of encapsulation.


  • Keywords

    Alginate, Carrageenan, Tofu waste flour, Extrusion, Encapsulation, Probiotic.

  • References

      [1] Cock LS & Castillo VV (2013), Probiotic encapsulation, African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 7, No. 40, pp. 4743-4753.

      [2] Burgain C, Galani C, Linder M, & Scher J (2011), Encapsulation of probiotic living cells: from laboratory scale to industrial applications, J. Food Eng, Vol. 104, pp. 467-483.

      [3] Ozyurt H & Otles S (2014), Properties of probiotics and encapsulated probiotics in food, Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 413-424.

      [4] Haffner FB, Diab R & Pasc A (2016), Review Encapsulation of probiotics: insights into academic and industrial approaches, AIMS Material Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 114-136.

      [5] Gbassi GK & Vandamme T (2012), Probiotic encapsulation technology: from microencapsulation to release into the gut, Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 4, pp. 149-163.

      [6] Kotikalapudi BL (2009), Characterization and encapsulation of probiotic bacteria using pea-protein alginate matrix, Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

      [7] Le-Tien C, Millette M, Mateescu MA & Lacroix M (2004), Modified alginate and chitosan for lactic acid bacteria immobilization, Biotechnology Applied Biochemistry. Vol. 39, pp. 347-354.

      [8] Lian WC, Hsio HC & Chou C (2002), Survival of Bifidobacterium longum after spray drying. Journal Food Microbiology, Vol. 74, pp. 79-86.

      [9] Kailasapathy K (2002), Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications, Curr. Intest. Microbiol, Vol. 3, pp. 39-48.

      [10] Chen K.N, Chen MJ, Liu JR, Lin CW & Chiu HY, (2005), Optimization of incorporated prebiotics as coating materials for probiotic microencapsulation, Journal Food Science, Vol. 70, pp. M260-M266.

      [11] Gandomi H, Abbaszadeh S, Misaghi A, Bokaie S & Noori N (2016), Effect of chitosan-alginate encapsulation with inulin on survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during apple juice storage and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, LWT – Food Science and Technology.

      William RB & Harper AR (2010), Carragenan. In Imerson A (Ed). Food Stabilizer, Thickener, and Gelling Agent. Willey-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, England.




Article ID: 24255
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.24255

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.