Formability characterization of aluminium AA6082-O sheet metal by uniaxial tension and Erichsen cupping tests

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    AA6082 is a relatively new structural alloy in the 6000 aluminium alloy series. This study evaluated the deep drawability of AA6082-O sheet metal. Uniaxial Tensile tests were conducted on specimens prepared according to DIN 50125-E standard, for three angular orienta-tions (0⁰, 45⁰, and 90⁰) relative to the rolling direction. Erichsen Cupping tests were conducted on 60 mm × 60 mm blanks of two gauge thicknesses (1.0 mm and 2.0 mm) and also on segmented blanks. A WP 300 Universal Material Tester, with a loading capacity of 20 kN, was used for all the tests. The Tensile Strength was higher in the rolling direction (0⁰) than in the transverse orientations (45⁰ and 90⁰). The resultant Forming Limit Curve (FLC) level of the established Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) was higher for the 2.0 mm thick blanks than the 1.0 mm thick blanks. Thus the alloy’s formability is affected by the sheet thickness and orientation. It increases with sheet thickness, but the alloy exhibits planar anisotropy (∆r<0). AA6082 sheet fractures with no observable necking under uniaxial tension conditions, and exhibits non-uniform yielding characteristics. However, the general stress-strain behaviour is typical of that of the aluminium 6000 alloy series.



  • Keywords

    Aluminium AA6082-O Sheet Metal; Erichsen Cupping Test; Formability, Forming Limit Diagrams; Uniaxial Tensile Test.

  • References

      [1] Benhabib B, Manufacturing: Design, Production, Automation, and Integration, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY, (2003), p. 216.

      [2] Subramonian S & Kardes N, “Materials for Sheet Forming,” Sheet Metal Forming: Fundamentals, ASM International, (2012), p. 73.

      [3] Nghishiyeleke ET, “An evaluation of the deep drawability of aluminium AA6082-O sheet,” Unpublished Thesis, (2015).

      [4] Heinzel H & Neitzert T, “Forming of locally made sheet steels -Issues and Opportunities,” HERA, available online:, last visit: 16.09.2018.

      [5] Gedney R, “Measuring the plastic strain ratio of sheet metals: A useful fool for evaluating material”, The FABRICATOR, (2006), available online:, last visit: 16.09.2018.

      [6] Sarna SK, “Defects in Thermo Mechanical Processing of Metals,” Ispat Digest, (2016), available online: last visit: 05.10.2018.

      [7] SIMTECH, “Introduction to Sheet Metal Forming Processes,” SimTech Simulation et Technologie, (2001), available online:, last visit: 22.07.2018.

      [8] “6082-O Aluminum,”, (2017), available online: last visit: 15.08.2017.

      [9] “Aluminium Alloy 6082 Material Data Sheet,” Thyssenkrupp Materials (UK) Ltd, (2016), available online:, last visit: 25.04.2018.

      [10] Davis JR, ASM Materials Engineering Dictionary, ASM International, Novelty, OH, (1992), pp.485-512.

      [11] Pfeifer M, “Sheet Metal Formability,” Industrial Metallurgists, LLC., (2014). available online: last visit: 17.09.2018.

      [12] Gedney R, “Sheet Metal Testing Guide: Formability of Sheet Metals, Measuring the Plastic Strain Ratio of Sheet Metals, Tensile Testing for Determining the Formability of Sheet Metals,” ADMET Inc., Norwood, (2013).

      [13] Niemeier BA, Schmieder AK & Newby JR, Formability Topics-Metallic Materials, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Baltimore, Md. (1978), pp. 39-150.

      [14] Banabic D, Bunge HJ, Pohlandt K, & Tekkaya AE, “Main tests used to determine the FLD,” Formability of Metallic Material: Plastic anisotropy, Formability Testing, Forming Limits, Springer, (2000).

      [15] Eric K & Danny S, “The Formability of sheet metals,” AutoForm Blog, (2016). available online: last visit: 17.09.2018.

      [16] Zhou H & Attard TL, “Simplified Anisotropic Plasticity Model for Analyzing the Post yield Behavior of Cold-Formed Sheet-Metal Shear Panel Structures,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 7, (2015), p. 4014185, available online: last visit: 18.09.2018.

      [17] Davis JR, Semiatin SL, & American Society for Metals, ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging, ASM International, (1989). pp. 888 – 897.

      [18] Truszkowski W, “Strain Ratio as the Measure of Plastic Anisotropy,” The Plastic Anisotropy in Single Crystals and Polycrystalline Metals, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2001), pp. 19-36, available online: last visit: 12.11.2018.

      [19] Youssef HA, El-Hofy HA & Ahmed MH, Manufacturing Technology: Materials, Processes, and Equipment, CRC Press, (2012), pp 175-292.

      [20] Henry S, Sanders B, Palakowski C, & Pace P, “Description of test material,” Tensile Testing, 2nd edn, ASM International, (2004), p. 49.

      [21] ISO, “ISO 20482:2013: Metallic materials -- Sheet and strip -- Erichsen cupping test,” International Organization for Standardization, (2013), available online: last visit: 17.09.2018.

      [22] Kalpakjian S & Schmid S, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Prentice Hall, New York, NY, (2010), pp. 381 - 431.

      [23] Venkatachalam G, Patel Nilay S, Mishra D, Singh S, Choudhary Y & Narayanan S, “Determination of Forming Limit Diagram for Perforated Aluminium 1050A Sheets”, International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 01, (2013), pp. 37-39.

      [24] Yeh FH, Li CL & Tsay KN, “An Analysis of Forming Limits for Various Arc radii of Punch in Micro Deep Drawing of the Square Cup”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 433-440, (2012), pp. 660-665, available online last visit: 04.12.2018.

      [25] Talič-Čikmiš A, Pepelnjak T, & Hasnbegovič S, “Experimental Determination of Forming Limit Diagram”, Proceedings of the 14th Internation Research/Expert Conference on Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology, (2010), pp. 605-608, available online:, last visit: 04.12.2018.

      [26] Tisza M, & Kovács ZP, “New Methods for Predicting the Formability of Sheet Metals”, Production Processes and Systems, Vol. 5, No. 1, (2012), pp. 45-54, available online: documents/document_13400_section_5558.pdf, last visit: 04.12.2018.

      [27] Todkar SS, Chhapkhane NK, & Todkar SR, “Investigation of Forming Limit Curves of Various Sheet Materials using Hydraulic Bulge Testing with Analytical, Experimental and FEA Techniques”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2013), pp. 858-863.

      [28] Banabic D, Dragos G, & Bichis I, “Influence of Variability of Mechanical Data on Forming Limits Curves”, Metal Forming, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2013), pp. 858-863

      [29] Chen J & Zhou X, “A New Curve Fitting Method for Forming Limit Experimental Data”, Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 4, (2005), pp. 521-525.

      [30] Son H, “Calculations of Forming Limit Diagrams for Changing Strain Paths on the Formability of Sheet Metal”, Journal of Material Science & Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, (2001), pp. 141-142.

      [31] Balod AE, Hadi MH & Basher EA, “The Effect of Load Punch in the Limits of Strain Paths for (1006) Steel Sheets by using Stretch Forming”, Anbar Journal for Engineering Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 4, (2005), pp. 102-108.

      [32] Kim SB, Huh H, Bok HH, & Moon MB, “Forming Limit Diagram of Auto-Body Steel Sheets for High-Speed Sheet Metal Forming”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, No. 5, (2011), pp. 851-862, available online. last visit: 04.12.2018.

      [33] Roxana H, Lynann C & Rogge R, “Intergranular Strain and Texture in Steel Lüders Bands,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, No. 12, (2005), pp. 3517-3524.

      [34] Sekhara RAC & Kumar TP, “Forming Limit Diagram for Sheet Metal Forming: Review”, International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, Vol. 2, No. 2, (2017), pp. 155-162, available online: last visit: 04.12.2018.

      [35] Arrayago I, Real E & Gardner L, “Description of stress‐strain curves for stainless steel alloys,” Materials and Design, Vol. 87, (2015), pp. 540‐552, available online: last visit: 05.06.2019.

      [36] Hirth JP, Dislocations in Solids: A Tribute to F.R.N. Nabarro, Vol. 14, Elsevier, (2011), pp. 251 – 331.

      [37] Mrówka-Nowotnik G, Sieniawski J & Wierzbiñska M, “Intermetallic phase particles in 6082 aluminium alloy,” Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 02, (2007), pp. 69 – 76. available online: last visit: 06.06.2019.

      [38] Ebhota WS & Jen TC, “Intermetallics Formation and Their Effect on Mechanical Properties of Al-Si-X Alloys,” Intermetallic Compounds - Formation and Applications, IntechOpen, (2018), pp. 21-41, available online: last visit: 06.06.2019.




Article ID: 23870
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.23870

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.