Water Quality Monitoring of Tigris River by Using (GIS)-Based Physicochemical ‎Parameters in Baghdad, Iraq


  • Nadia Nazhat Sabeeh
  • Waleed M. Sh. Alabdraba
  • Ghadah Hasan Mohamed
  • Zainab B. Mohammed






GIS, Major and Minor Ions, Pollution, Tigris River, Water Quality.


Water quality deterioration has become an essential concern worldwide due to climatic ‎changes and increased pollution. As a result, the available drinking water supply resources†â€will receive its ration of this deterioration. This study was conducted to monitor the water ‎quality of the Tigris River in eight different locations in Baghdad during the period ‎between 2005 and 2013. Water samples were collected and analyzed for fourteen ‎selected physicochemical parameters including alkalinity, total hardness (TH), turbidity, ‎total suspended solids (TSS), temperature, pH, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, electrical ‎conductivity (EC), chloride, calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. To show the spatial and ‎temporal variations of the selected parameters along the study area easily and objectively, ‎Geographical Information System maps (GIS maps) were used. Results showed that the ‎obtained values in winter of alkalinity, turbidity, electrical conductivity, and the ‎concentration of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrite, phosphate, chloride, and total ‎suspended solids were higher as compared with the corresponding values in summer. On ‎the other hand, temperature, total hardness, pH, and nitrate values were higher in summer ‎as compared with the corresponding values in winter. The water quality of Tigris River ‎throughout the study period was within the permissible limits of the Iraqi standards for ‎drinking water.‎



[1] APHA. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater analysis. 20thEdn., American Public Health Association, AWWA.‎

[2] Basu, S., & Lokesh, K. S. (2013). Spatial and temporal variations of river water quality: A ‎case study of River Kabini and Nanjangud in Karnataka. International Journal of ‎Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 5(10): 591-566.‎Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control, 2009. Iraqi standard of ‎drinking water No. 417; modification No. 2.‎

[3] Davie, T. (2002). Fundamentals of Hydrology, 2nd Edn., Routledge.‎

[4] EPA. (2002). National recommended water quality criteria, ‎http://www.epa.gov/watersciene/pc/revcom.pdh

[5] Kumar, A., Bisht, B. S., Amitabh, T., & Deepika, C. (2010). Physicochemical and ‎microbial analysis of ground water from different regions of doon valley. ‎International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5(3):433-440.‎

[6] Moore, R. D., Fleming, B. M., Wheate, R., Fountain, A., Stahl, K., Holm, K.& Jakob, M. (‎‎2009). Glacier change in western North America: influences of hydrology ‎geomorphic hazards and water quality. Hydrological Processes, 23: 42-61.‎

[7] Mustapha, A., Aris, A.Z., Juahir, H., Ramli, M.F., & Kura, N.U. (2013). River water ‎quality assessment using environmental techniques: a case study of Jakara River ‎Basin. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20:5630-5644.‎

[8] Palmer, M.A., & Bernhardt, E.S. (2004). Ecological science and sustainability for a ‎crowded planet. Report from the Ecological Society of America, ‎www.sea.org/ecovisions.

[9] ‎ Parmar, K.S.,& Bhardwaj, R. (2014). Water quality management using statistical analysis ‎and time-series prediction model. Applied Water Science, DOI 10.1007/s ,13201-‎‎014-0159-9. ‎ ‎

[10] Rani, N., Sinha,R.K., Prasad, K. & Kedia, D.K. (2011). Assessment of temporal variation ‎in water quality of some important rivers in middle Gangetic plains, ‎Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 174:401-415.‎

[11] Saravanakumar, A., Rajkumar, M., Sesh Serebiah, J. & Thivakaran, G.A. (2008). Seasonal ‎variations in physicochemical characteristics of water, sediment and soil texture in ‎arid zone mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat. Journal of Environmental Biology, ‎‎29:725-732.

[12] ‎ Sharma, S., Jha, P.K., Ranjan, M.R., Singh, U.K., & Jindal, T. (2017). Water quality ‎monitoring of Yamuna River by using GIS-based water quality index in Delhi, ‎India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, ‎‎6(2):1249-1263.‎

[13] Subin, M.P., & Husna, A.H. 2013. An Assessment on the impact of the waste discharge ‎on water quality of Periyar River Lets in certain selected sites in the northern part ‎of Ernakulam District in Kerala, International Research Journal of Environmental ‎Sciences, 2(6):76-84‎‎

[14] Thomas, J., Joseph, S., Thrivikramji, K. P., Manjusree, T. M., & Arunkumar, K.S. (2014). ‎Seasonal variation in major ion chemistry of a tropical mountain river, the southern ‎Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71: 2333-2351.

[15] ‎Weiner, E. R. (2008). Applications of environmental aquatic chemistry: A practical guide, ‎‎2nd Edn. CRC Press: Boca Raton.‎

[16] ‎ WHO. (2006). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 2nd Edn., vol.1, recommendations, ‎Geneva: 595.‎

View Full Article: