Effects of Demographic Factors on Performance Strategies and Brain Wave Quality on Performance among Athletes
Keywords:Athletes, brain wave quality, demographic factors, effects, qEEG, performance strategies,
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of demographic factors and brain wave quality on performance strategies among athletes. The demographic factors such as gender, years of study, and years of involvement in sports play an important role in the use of performance strategies in determining their performance strategies in sports. The instruments used for this research is the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) to measure the performance strategies. The findings have revealed that there were significant differences in the performance strategies by the demographic factors as follows; gender at t (21) = 13.75; p < .05; years of study at t (21) = 9.46; p < .05, and years of involvement at t (20) = 11.37; p < .05. In addition, there were also significant differences in the sub factors of the performance strategies such as goal setting, relaxation, activation, imagery, self-talk, attentional control, emotional control, and automaticity. Based on the finding from the qEEG application, in the stroop effect tasks, the Beta and Gamma wave had the tendency to dominate the Frontal region (Fp1,Fp2), somatosensory area (C3,C4) which related to the development of the psychomotor skills and visual spatial area (P3,P4) and O1 and O2. The athletes have less thought process in seconds prior to the shot and have quieter mind than the non-athletes. It could be inferred that the athletes needed to be calm and relaxed while facing their challenge so that they could focus on their target and performance. The implication of this research includes the brain wave quality and effect on the performance strategies. The improvement in the brain quality (Alpha, Beta and Gamma) wave would assist the athletes to perform.
 Milavic, B., Grgantov, Z., & Velickovska, L., A. (2013). Age and positional differences in psychological coping skills of young female volleyball players. PESH, Vol (2) 9-16.
 Pederson, D.M. (2002). Intrinsic â€“ extrinsic factors in sport motivation. Perception Motivation Skills 95, 459-476, Retrieve from doi: 10.2466/PMS.95.6.459-476.
 Arjona. A., Escudero, M., and Gomez, C., M. (2014).Updtaing of attentional and premotor allocation resources as function of previous trial outcome. Sci. Rep.4:4526. Retrieve from doi: 10.1038/srep04526.
 West, R.,L. and Thorn. R., M. (2001).Goal setting, self-efficacy and memory performance in older and younger adults.Exp. Aging Res, 27, 41-65, Retrieved from doi:10.1080/036107301750046133.
 Dipoppa. M., and Gutkin, B.,S. (2013). Flexible frequency control of cortical oscillations enables computations required for working memory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110,12828-12833. Retrieve from doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303270110.
 Renfree, A., Martin, L., Micklewright, D., and St Clair Gibson, A. (2014). Application of decision making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.Sports Med, 44,147-158.Retrieved from doi: 10.1007/s10484-011-9166.
 Badami, R., VaeMousavi, M., Wulf, G., and Manazizadeh, M. (2012). Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation. Res. Q.Exer.Sport, 83,196-203, Retrieved from doi:10.1080/02701367.2012.10599850.
 Ali, A., Fawver, B., Kim, J., Fairbrother, J., and Janelle, C., M. (2012).Too much of a good thing: Random practice scheduling and self-control of feedback lead to unique but not additive learning benefits. Front Psychol. 3:503, Retrieve from doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00503.
 Thelwell R, Weston N, Greenlees I. (2005).Defining and understanding mental toughness within soccer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17, 326-32.
 Fletcher D., Hanton S. (2001) The relationship between psychological skills usage and competitive anxiety responses. Psychology of Sport and Exercise2, 89-101
 Lowther, J., Lane, A., & Lane, H. (2002). Self-efficacy and psychological skills duringthe Amputee soccer World Cup.Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of SportPsychology, 4(2).http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol4Iss2/SoccerSelfEfficacy.htm.
 Hanton S., Jones G. (1999) The acquisition and development of cognitive skills and strategies. I: Making the butterflies fly in formation. The Sport Psychologist13, 1-21
 Frey, M., Laguna, P. L., & Ravizza, K. (2003). Collegiate athletesâ€™ mental skill use and perceptions of success: an exploration of the practice and competition settings.Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 115â€“128.
 Birrer, D.&Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.Scand J Med Sci Sports, Retrieve from doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01188.x.
 Tod,D., James Hardy,J., & Olive, E.(2011).Effects of Self-Talk: A Systematic Review. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 666-687.
 Smith, R.B., Schutz, R.W., Smoll, F.L., & Ptacek, J.T. (1995). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of sport-specific psychological skills: the athletic coping skills inventory-28. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17,379-398.
 Cheron G., Petit G., Cheron J., Leroy A., Cebolla A., Cevallos C., et al.(2016). Brain oscillations in sport: Toward EEG biomarkers of performance. Front psychology, Retrieve from 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.0026.
 Reza Shadmehr,1 Maurice A. Smith,2 and John W. Krakauer (2010) Error Correction, Sensory Prediction, and Adaptation in Motor Control
 Perez-Gomez, J., Rodriguez GV, Ara I, Olmedillas H, Chavarren J, GonzÃ¡lez-Henriquez JJ, Dorado C, Calbet JA. (2008). Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?Eur J ApplPhysiol.102(2),685-694.
 Cheuvront, SN. Carter, R., Deruisseau, KC., & Moffatt, RJ. (2005). running performance differences between men and women: An update. Sport Medical. 35(12), 1017-1024
 Nor MazlinaGhazali, Norsiahfauzan, AzzahrahAnuar and Edris Aden. (2017). Descriptive study on demographic factorsand performance strategies among athletes. Conference Proceeding: UNIMAS.
 Belem, I., C., Caruzzo, M., N., Junior, J., R., AN., Viera,J., L.,L. & Viera, L., F. (2014). Impact of coping strategies on resilience. Revista Brasileira de CINEANTROPOMETRIA,doi: http://dx.doi.org/
 Dias, C., Fernado Cruz, J., & Manual Fonseca, A. (2010). Coping strategies, multidimensional competitive anxiety, and cognitive threat appraisal: Differences across sex, age and type of sport.Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences. 4(1),23-31.
 Christos, K., Polyxeni, A, & Smirniotou, A. (2009). Biology of Exercise. Retrieve from doi: http:doi.org/10.4127/jbe.2009.0023
 Thomas, P. R., Murphy, S. M., & Hardy, L. (1999). Test of Performance Strategies: development and preliminary validation of a comprehensive measure of athletesâ€™ psychological skills. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 697â€“711.
 Zimmer, C., (2010 ) The Brain: Why Athletes Are Geniuses. Retrieved from,http://discovermagazine.com/2010/apr/16-the-brain-athletes-are-geniuses.
 Del Percio C, Brancucci A, Bergami F, Marzano N, Fiore A, Di Ciolo E, Aschieri P, Andrea Lino A, Vecchio F, Iacoboni M, Gallamini M, Babiloni C, Eusebi F. Cortical alpha rhythms are correlated with body sway during quiet open-eyes standing in athletes: a high-resolution EEG study. Neuroimage. 2007a;36:822â€“829. [PubMed]
 Babadi, A..&Foroonzandeh, E. (2012). Spatial Attention among Female Teenagers Involved in Sports Exercise and Non-Athlete Girls.
 Miriam S. Nokia, SannaLensu, Juha P. Ahtiainen, Petra P. Johansson, Lauren G. Koch, Steven L. Britton, HeikkiKainulainen. (2016) Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained. The Journal of Physiology, 2016; doi: 10.1113/JP27155
 Amiot, C., E., Gaudreau, P., & Blanchard, C., M. (2004). Self-determination, coping, and goal attainment in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Vol (26) 396-411.
 Vallerand RJ, Rousseau F. (2001). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise: a review using the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In Handbook of Sport Psychology (2nd edn), Singer RN, Hausenblas HA, Janelle CM (eds). John Wiley: New York; 389â€“416.
 Harmony, T., (2013) The Functional Significance of Delta Oscillations in Cognitive Processing, Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, V7:83: Published online 2013Dec 5. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00083 PMCID: PMC3851789
 Watrous AJ, Tandon N, Conner CR, Pieters T, Ekstrom AD (2013) Frequency-specific network connectivity increases underlie accurate spatiotemporal memory retrieval. Nat Neurosci 16: 349â€“356.
 Zimmer, C. (2010, April 10). The Brain: Why Athletes Are Geniuses. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/2010/apr/16-the-brain-athletes-are-geniuses.
 Crews, D. J., & Landers, D. M. (1993). Electroencephalographic measures of attentional patterns prior to the golf putt. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25(1), 116-126.
 Drew, Thetha Brain Waves â€“ A guide to understanding (2008), Retrieved from http://4mind4life.com.