Effect of Sheet Thickness during Superplastic Forming of AZ31B Alloy into a Hemispherical Die


  • S. Balaguru
  • K. Siva Kumar
  • G. Deenadayalan
  • P. Sathishkumar




Superplastic forming, Magnesium alloy, Hemispherical die.


This paper deals with the effect of various combinations of temperature and pressure in the Superplastic forming process of AZ31B Magnesium alloy of different thickness into a hemispherical die. Using the time taken and the corresponding depth formed, the values of strain, strain rate and strain rate sensitivity were calculated. From these values, graphs were plotted. From the graphs, the effective pressure and temperature combination for specific thickness was determined.




[1] Luo Y, Luckey S.G, Friedman P.A, Peng Y, 2008, “Development of an advanced superplastic forming process utilizing a mechanical pre-forming operation†International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48, 1509–1518.

[2] Carrino L, Giuliano G, Napolitano G, 2003 “A posteriori optimisation of the forming pressure in superplastic forming processes by the finite element method†Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 39, 1083–1093.

[3] Hwang YM, Lay HS, Huang JC, 2002 “Study on superplastic blow-forming in a rectangular closed-die†International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42, 1363–1372.

[4] Khraisheh MK, Abu-Farha FK, Nazzal MA, Weinmann KJ, 2006 “Investigation of Post- Superplastic Forming Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy†Annals of CIRP.

[5] Balaguru, S, Deenadayalan, K, Vela Murali & Chellapandi, P 2014,‘Influence of welding speed over dilution for Circular Grid Plate Hardfaced with Colmonoy-5’, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 565, pp. 53-58.

[6] Ragab R 1982 “Thermoforming of Superplastic sheets in shaped dies†Metals Technology.

[7] Jung-Ho Cheng 1996 “The determination of material parameters from superplastic inflation tests†Journal of Materials Processing Technology 58, 233-246.

[8] Balaguru, S, Vela Murali & Chellapandi P 2016, ‘Effects of different Operating Temperatures on the Tensile Properties of the Grid Plate Hardfaced with Colmonoy in a Pool Type Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor’, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, vol. 2017, pp. 1-9.

[9] Javier Bonet, 2006 “Simulating superplastic forming†Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engg.195, 6580–6603.

[10] Pin-Hou Sun, Horng-Yu Wu, Hsin-Han Tsai, Chih-Chao Huang, Ming-Da Tzou , 2010 “Effect of pressurization profile on the deformation characteristics of fine-grained AZ31B Mg alloy sheet during gas blow forming†Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210, 1673–1679.

[11] Balaguru, S, Vela Murali & Chellapandi P 2016, ‘Measurement of the Residual Stresses and Investigation of Their Effects on a Hardfaced Grid Plate due to Thermal Cycling in a Pool Type Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor’, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, vol. 2016, pp. 1-8.

[12] Hamilton CH, Ghosh AH, 1988 “Superplastic sheet forming†Materials Handbbok, 9th Edition, Vol.14, ASM, Metals Park, 852-873.

[13] Cheng JH, 1994, “A procedure for designing initial thickness variation for superplastic free inflation†International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 36, 981-1000.

[14] Balaguru, S, Vela Murali & Chellapandi P 2015, ‘Effects of Welding speeds on Macro and Microstructures in Hardfacing of Colmonoy on Un-grooved and Grooved 316 L(N) SS Base metal’, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 25627-25631.

[15] Shailesh P, Vijaya Kumar K, Babu J, 2017 “Evaluation of Strain and Strain rates at different stages of Superplastic Cone Forming†Materials Today Proceedings, vol. 4, 835-841.

[16] Yang HP, Fu MW, To S, Wang GC, 2016, “Investigation on the maximum strain rate sensitivity (m) superplastic deformation of Mg-Li based alloy†Materials & Design, vol. 112, 151-159.

[17] Du ZX, Liu JS, Jiang SD “Strain rate dependence of microstructural evolution in β titanium alloy during subtransus superplastic deformation†Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 647, 1-5.

[18] S.Ramesh Babuab, V.S.Senthil Kumar, L.Karunamoorthy, G.Madhusudhan Reddy 2014,†Investigation on the effect of friction stir processing on the superplastic forming of AZ31B alloyâ€, Materials & Design, Vol. 53, 338-348.

[19] K.Sathish, S.T.Selvamani, P.Ramesh, D.Sivakumar, M.Vigneshwar & S.Divagar 2017, “Finite Element Analysis on Optimized Condition of Super Plastic Forming of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheetsâ€, Materials Today Proceedings, vol. 4, 6678-6687.

[20] D.Sorgente, G.Palumbo, A.Piccininni, P.Guglielmi & S.A.Aksenovc 2018,†Investigation on the thickness distribution of highly customized titanium biomedical implants manufactured by superplastic formingâ€, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, vol.20, 29-35.

[21] MuhammedShafi. P,Selvakumar.S*, Mohamed Shakeel.P, “An Efficient Optimal Fuzzy C Means (OFCM) Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) To Analyze and Predict Crime Dataâ€, Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamic and Control Systems, Issue: 06,2018, Pages: 699-707

[22] Selvakumar, S & Inbarani, Hannah & Mohamed Shakeel, P. (2016). A hybrid personalized tag recommendations for social E-Learning system. 9. 1187-1199

View Full Article: