A Preliminary Experiment of Non-Catalytic Transesterification: Thermal Analysis of Palm Oil and Biodiesel at Different Ratio

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Currently, the biodiesel production technology is moving toward the trend of non-catalytic reaction under subcritical condition as the conventional non-catalytic transesterification requires high energy input and high production cost. Hence, non-catalytic biodiesel production under subcritical condition using microwave energy is proposed. Before that, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to characterize the biodiesel feedstock and determine the suitable experimental temperature range for the proposed method. Besides, the thermal behavior of the palm oil and biodiesel at different stages of reaction was also investigated. The results showed that the palm oil and biodiesel were started to degrade from 335ºC and 160ºC respectively. However, the degradation point of palm oil was higher than the supercritical temperature of DMC. So, external energy is needed to bring down the operating condition, such as microwave energy as it has potential to reduce the activation energy. To further eliminate the problem of biodiesel thermal degradation during the transesterification process, the suggested experimental temperature range is within 80ºC to 180ºC, which is from the temperature lower than the boiling point of DMC (<90ºC) to the temperature slightly higher than the biodiesel thermal degradation point. Furthermore, DSC result indicated that palm oil requires 518.35kJ/mol to decompose.


  • Keywords


    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); Microwave-assisted reaction; Non-catalytic transesterification; Palm oil; Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  • References


      [1] Gerssen-Gondelach, S. J., Saygin, D., Wicke, B., Patel, M. K., & Faaij, A. P. C., (2014), Competing uses of biomass: Assessment and comparison of the performance of bio-based heat, power, fuels and materials,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 964–998. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.197

      [2] Gude, V., Patil, P., Martinez-Guerra, E., Deng, S., & Nirmalakhandan, N., (2013), Microwave energy potential for biodiesel production,Sustainable Chemical Processes, 1(1), 5. doi:10.1186/2043-7129-1-5

      [3] Lim, S., & Teong, L. K., (2010), Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: An overview,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(3), 938–954. doi:10.1016/J.RSER.2009.10.027

      [4] Kaur, M., Malhotra, R., & Ali, A., (2018), Tungsten supported Ti/SiO2 nanoflowers as reusable heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production,Renewable Energy, 116, 109–119. doi:10.1016/J.RENENE.2017.09.065

      [5] Srivastava, G., Paul, A. K., & Goud, V. V., (2018), Optimization of non-catalytic transesterification of microalgae oil to biodiesel under supercritical methanol condition,Energy Conversion and Management, 156, 269–278. doi:10.1016/J.ENCONMAN.2017.10.093

      [6] Zullaikah, S., Rahkadima, Y. T., & Ju, Y.-H., (2017), A non-catalytic in situ process to produce biodiesel from a rice milling by-product using a subcritical water-methanol mixture,Renewable Energy, 111, 764–770. doi:10.1016/J.RENENE.2017.04.040

      [7] Gohain, M., Devi, A., & Deka, D., (2017), Musa balbisiana Colla peel as highly effective renewable heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production,Industrial Crops and Products, 109, 8–18. doi:10.1016/J.INDCROP.2017.08.006

      [8] Nomanbhay, S., & Ong, M. Y., (2017), A Review of Microwave-Assisted Reactions for Biodiesel Production,Bioengineering, 4(2), 57.

      [9] Gedye, R., Smith, F., Westaway, K., Ali, H., Baldisera, L., Laberge, L., & Rousell, J., (1986), The use of microwave ovens for rapid organic synthesis,Tetrahedron Letters, 27(3), 279–282. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)83996-9

      [10] Kwon, E. E., Yi, H., Park, J., & Seo, J., (2012), Non-catalytic heterogeneous biodiesel production via a continuous flow system,Bioresource Technology, 114, 370–374. doi:10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2012.03.110

      [11] Dwivedi, G., & Sharma, M. P., (2016), Experimental investigation on thermal stability of Pongamia Biodiesel by thermogravimetric analysis,Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25(1), 33–38. doi:10.1016/J.EJPE.2015.06.008

      [12] Roschat, W., (2015), Synthesis of Biodiesel and Glycerol Carbonate using Heterogeneous Catalysts. Suranaree University of Technology.

      [13] Maton, C., De Vos, N., & Stevens, C. V., (2013), Ionic liquid thermal stabilities: decomposition mechanisms and analysis tools,Chemical Society Reviews, 42(13), 5963. doi:10.1039/c3cs60071h

      [14] Silva, C., Weschenfelder, T. A., Rovani, S., Corazza, F. C., M. L. Corazza, †, Dariva, C., & Vladimir Oliveira, J., (2007), Continuous Production of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Soybean Oil in Compressed Ethanol,Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46(16), 5304–5309. doi:10.1021/IE070310R

      [15] Kwon, E. E., Kim, S., Jeon, Y. J., & Yi, H., (2012), Biodiesel Production from Sewage Sludge: New Paradigm for Mining Energy from Municipal Hazardous Material,Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18), 10222–10228. doi:10.1021/es3019435

      [16] Tapaswy Muppaneni, Harvind K.Reddy, Sundaravadivelnathan Ponnusamy, Prafulla D.Patil, Yingqiang Sun, Peter Dailey, & Shuguang Deng, (2013), Optimization of biodiesel production from palm oil under supercritical ethanol conditions using hexane as co-solvent: A response surface methodology approach,Fuel, 107, 633–640. doi:10.1016/J.FUEL.2012.11.046

      [17] Jung, J.-M., Lee, J., Choi, D., Oh, J.-I., Lee, S.-R., Kim, J.-K., & Kwon, E. E., (2017), Biochar as porous media for thermally-induced non-catalytic transesterification to synthesize fatty acid ethyl esters from coconut oil,Energy Conversion and Management, 145, 308–313. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2017.05.009

      [18] Fukushima, J., Kashimura, K., Takayama, S., Sato, M., Sano, S., Hayashi, Y., & Takizawa, H., (2013), In-situ kinetic study on non-thermal reduction reaction of CuO during microwave heating,Materials Letters, 91, 252–254. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2012.09.114


 

View

Download

Article ID: 22362
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.35.22362




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.