A Comparative Study of Single-tooth and Multi-tooth Stator of 4S-8P Permanent Magnet FSM for Electric Bicycle Application


  • Laili Iwani Jusoh
  • Erwan Sulaiman
  • M. Fairoz Omar
  • Hassan Ali Soomro






Permanent Magnet, Electric Bicycles, Flux Switching Machines, Multi-tooth, Single-tooth


This paper present a comparative study of single-tooth and multi-tooth stator of 4S-8P permanent magnet Flux Switching Machine (FSM) for electric bicycle application. Detailed comparison of the performance characteristics of the machines are presented that include important issues such as average torque, volume of PM, back-EMF and speed performance. For a fair comparison, the valid stator slot and rotor combinations is same dimension and analyzed using finite element analysis, and the one among of the design has the best electromagnetic performance is selected. On the basis of the investigation, it can be concluded that the single-tooth design of proposed permanent magnet FSM for a single phase 4S-8P topology has presented higher torque performance compared to multi-tooth design. However, since design of single-tooth exhibits a higher back-EMF, Design optimization and improvement structural is ongoing to achieve the best performance.


[1] Lin J, Schofield N & Emadi A (2015), External-Rotor 6-10 Switched Reluctance Motor for an Electric Bicycle. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 348-356.

[2] Ceuca E & Trifa V (2015), Strategy approach for developing the control mode for modern E-bike controller developed in laboratory at 1 Decembrie 1918. Semiconductor Conference (CAS), vol. 2, pp. 237-240.

[3] Ruan Y, Hang CC, Wang YM & Ma RF (2012), The role of government in an emerging Disruptive Innovation: The case of E-bike in China. Management of Innovation and Technology (ICMIT), 2012 IEEE International Conference, pp. 447-450.

[4] Chen H (2001), The Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for Application in Electric Bicycle. ISIE Proceeding IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol.2, pp. 1152-1156.

[5] Chan T, Yan LT & Fang SY (2001), In Wheel Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive for an Electric Bicycle. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transaction, Vol. 2, pp. 1152-1156.

[6] Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL & Hauser SL (2008), Principles of Harrison’s Internal Medicine, Vol. 9, 17thedn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp.2275–2304.

[7] Muetze A & Tan YC (2007), Electric Bicycles-A Performance Evaluation. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, pp. 12-21.

[8] Bhat SB, Nikam SP & Fernandes BG (2014), Design and Analysis of Ferrite Based Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Assist Bicycleâ€, Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2014 International Conference on Berlin, pp. 106-111.

[9] McMahon GT, Gomes HE, Hohne SH, Hu TM, Levine BA & Conlin PR (2005), Web-based care management in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Diabetes Care 28, 1624–1629.

[10] Kim KS, Lee SH, Cha HR, Lee KS & Park SJ (2009), Design and Analysis of Outer Rotor Type IPMSM for an Electric Bicycle. INTELEC 2009 - 31st International Telecommunications Energy Conference, Incheon, pp. 1-4.

[11] Islam MZ & Choi S (2016), Design Of Rare-Earth Free Five-Phase Outer-Rotor IPM Motor Drive For Electric Bicycleâ€, 2016 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Long Beach, CA, pp. 631-637.

[12] Rhyu SH, SKhaliq S, Kim E & Lee KD (2017), Design and Analysis of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Bicycles with Hybrid Stator Coreâ€, Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2017 20th International Conference On IEEE.

[13] Azar Z, Zhu ZQ & Ombach G (2012), Influence of Electric Loading and Magnetic Saturation on Cogging Torque, Back-EMF and Torque Ripple of PM Machines. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2650-2658.

[14] Bianchi N & Bolognani S (2002), Design Techniques For Reducing the Cogging Torque in Surface-Mounted PM Motors. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1259-1265.

[15] Hua W, Cheng M, Zhu ZQ & Howe D (2008), Analysis and Optimization of Back EMF Waveform of a Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Motor. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 727-733.

[16] Zhu ZQ & Howe D (2000), Influence of Design Parameters on Cogging Torque in Permanent Magnet Machines. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 407-412.

[17] Kumar R, Sulaiman E, Jenal M & Bahrim FS (2017), Parametric Optimization and Performance Analysis of Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Machine for Downhole Application. Journal of Magnetics, vol. 22(1), pp. 69-77.

[18] Zarafi M, Sulaiman E & Kosaka T (2015), Analysis of High Torque and Power Densities Outer-Rotor PM-FSM with DC Excitation Coil for In-Wheel Direct Drive. Journal of Magnetics, vol. 20 (3), pp. 265-272.

[19] Heinen E, Wee BV & Maat K (2010), Commuting by Bicycle: An Overview of The Literature. Transport Reviews, Vol. 30, pp. 59-96.

[20] Seo JM, Rhyu SH, Jung IS & Jung HK (2015), A Design of Multi Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine for Electric Bicycles. 2015 9th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), pp. 1457-1461.

[21] Hao Chen (2001), The Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for Application in Electric Bicycle. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics Proceedings, vol.2, pp. 1152-1156.

[22] Shi JT & Zhu ZQ (2015), Analysis of Novel Multi-Tooth Variable Flux Reluctance Machines With Different Stator and Rotor Pole Combinations. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1-11.

View Full Article: