Tribological properties of palm oil bio-lubricant with modified carbon nanotubes


  • Izatul Hamimi Abdul Razak
  • Mohamad Ali Ahmad
  • Nadia Nurul Nabihah Ahmad Fuad
  • Khairul Syazwani Shahrudin
  • . .





Palm oil, Carbon Nano-tubes, Coefficient of friction, Wear, Extreme pressure.


Vegetable oil has been identified to be the one of best replacement of mineral oil. Palm oil has also been used as replacement for current mineral oil apart from the application in domestic use. Its potential as based oil for hydraulic fluid, diesel engine, and lubricants has been confirmed in many previous studies. Additives are commonly added to lubricant oils with purpose to enhance the oil performance. Recent studies show that the size and quantity of additives used may play a big role in its tribological properties. Several studies reported that adding nanoparticles with the size between 1 to 100 nm into lubricating oil at certain weight percentage can reduce friction and improve anti-wear properties. Modification of lubricant oil with nanoparticle capable to give the sliding effect into rolling effect thus reduces surface contact and heat production. In the present work, carbon nanotube has been used as the Nano-additives in palm oil bio-lubricant. Four-ball tester was used to investigate its tribological properties under boundary lubrication (metal to metal contact). Result obtained shows that the addition of 0.04 wt% of carbon nanotubes recorded the lowest coefficient of friction with a 10.8% improvement compared to the pure palm oil. The additive also contributed to better wear scar diameters and possessed good anti wear properties for palm oil. This thus shows the significant potential of the carbon nanotubes as the wear preventive additive for palm oil bio-lubricant.




[1] Gulzar M, Masjuki HH, Varman M, Kalam MA, Mufti RA, Zulkifli NWM, Yunus R, and Zahid R (2015), Improving the AW/EP ability of chemically modified palm oil by adding CuO and MoS nanoparticles. Tribology International, 88, 271–279.

[2] Heikal EK, Elmelawy MS, Khalil SA, and Elbasuny NM (2017), Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 26(1), 53–59.

[3] Mobarak HM, Niza Mohamad E, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Al Mahmud KAH, Habibullah M, and Ashraful AM (2014), The prospects of biolubricants as alternatives in automotive applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 34–43.

[4] Panchal TM, Patel A, Chauhan DD, Thomas M, and Patel JV (2017), A methodological review on bio-lubricants from vegetable oil based resources. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70 (October 2015), 65–70.

[5] Gapinski RE, Joseph IE, and Layzell BD (1994), A vegetable oil-based tractor lubricant, SAE Tech Paper 941785, pp. 1–9.

[6] Erhan SZ, Sharma BK, and Perez JM (2006), Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants, Industrial Crops and Products, 24, 292-299.

[7] Kiu SSK, Yusup S, Soon CV, Arpin T, Samion S, and Kamil RNM (2017), Tribological investigation of graphene as lubricant additive in vegetable oil, Journal of Physical Science, vol. 28, 257–267.

[8] Zulkifli NWM, Azman SSN, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Yunus R, and Gulzar M (2016), Lubricity of bio-based lubricant derived from different chemically modified fatty acid methyl ester, Tribology International vol. 93, 555–562.

[9] Zen AG and Rashmi GW (2013), Tribological Evaluation of Nano Graphene Platelets as an Additive to Biolubricant Base Fluid, EURECA, 10–11.

[10] Zulkifli NWM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, and Yunus R (2013), Experimental analysis of tribological properties of biolubricant with nanoparticle additive., Procedia Eng., vol. 68, 152–157.

[11] Su Y, Gong L, and Chen D (2015), An Investigation on Tribological Properties and Lubrication Mechanism of Graphite Nanoparticles as Vegetable Based Oil Additive, J. Nanomater, September, 1–7.

[12] Thottackkad MV, Perikinalil RK, and Kumarapillai PN (2012), Experimental evaluation on the tribological properties of coconut oil by the addition of CuO nanoparticles, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 13, no. 1, 111–116.

[13] Dai HJ (2002), Carbon nanotubes: opportunities and challenges, Surface Science, vol. 500, no. 1–3, 218–241.

[14] Odom, TW, Huang JL, Kim P, and Lieber CM (1998). Atomic structure and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nature, 391(6662), 62-64.

[15] Chen CS, Chen XH, Xu LS, Yang Z, and Li WH (2005), Modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with fatty acid and their tribological properties as lubricant additive, Carbon, vol. 43, no. 8, 1660–1666.

[16] Pei X, Xia Y, Liu W, Yu B, and Jing (2008), Polyelectrolyte-Grafted Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Reversible Phase-Transition Behavior, and Tribological Properties as Lubricant Additives, Journal of Polymer Science. Part A: Polym. Chem., vol. 46, 7225–7237.

[17] ASTM4172-94 Standard test method for wear preventive characteristics of lubricating fluid (four-ball method). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2009.

[18] ASTM2783-03 Standard test method for measurement of extreme-pressure properties of lubricating fluid (four-ball method). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2004

[19] Kiu SSK, Yusup S, Chok VS, Taufiq A, Kamil RNM, Syahrullail S and Chin BLF (2017), Comparison on tribological properties of vegetable oil upon addition of carbon-based nanoparticles, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 206, no. 1.

[20] Cornelio JAC, Cuervo PA, Hoyos-palacio LM, Lara-romero J and Toro A (2016), Tribological properties of carbon nanotubes as lubricant additive in oil and water for a wheel – rail system, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 5, no. 1, 68–76.

[21] Talib N, Nasir RM, and Rahim EA (2017). Tribological behaviour of modified jatropha oil by mixing hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles as a bio-based lubricant for machining processes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147, 360–378.

[22] Zulkifli NWM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Shahabuddin M, and Yunus R (2013). Wear prevention characteristics of a palm oil-based TMP (trimethylolpropane) ester as an engine lubricant. Energy, 54, 167–173.

[23] Lin YC, Cho YH, and Chiu CTe. (2012). Tribological Performance of EP Additives in Different Base Oils. Tribology Transactions, 55(2), 175–184.

View Full Article:

How to Cite

Hamimi Abdul Razak, I., Ali Ahmad, M., Nurul Nabihah Ahmad Fuad, N., Syazwani Shahrudin, K., & ., . (2018). Tribological properties of palm oil bio-lubricant with modified carbon nanotubes. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.18), 133–137.
Received 2018-11-27
Accepted 2018-11-27
Published 2018-11-27