Green Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) using Azadirachta Indica Aqueous Leaf Extract
Keywords:Azadirachta indica, eco-friendly, iron oxide nanoparticles, magnetite, non-toxic.
On treatment of aqueous solutions of ferrous and ferric salts in alkaline medium with Azadirachta indica leaf extract, the rapid formation of stable iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) or also known as magnetite nanoparticles is observed to occur. In contrast to previously reported co-precipitation approaches, our synthesis method had utilized a much cheaper and less toxic iron precursor with environmentally benign and non-toxic Azadirachta indica leaf extract was used as a reducing and stabilizing agent. It was found that the presence of various biomolecules such as flavonoids and terpenoids of the aqueous leaf extract plays a major role for the formation of Fe3O4-NPs through infrared spectra analysis. The formation was further confirmed with strong characteristic peak observed at 249 nm for Fe3O4-NPs through UV-Vis spectroscopy. Besides, the shape was mostly spherical and oval. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the purity of synthesized Fe3O4-NPs with crystalline cubic structure phase. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results illustrated that the size and diameter was in the range from 9-14 nm which agrees with calculated Scherrer equation with average diameter of around 11 nm. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analysis indicated that the samples exhibit superparamagnetic with magnetization value was 82 emu/g. Results confirmed this protocol as a simple, rapid, one-step, eco-friendly, non-toxic and hence can be potentially used in various biomedical applications such as magnetic targeting drug delivery system.
 S. Ahmed, Saifullah, M. Ahmad, B. L. Swami, and S. Ikram, â€œGreen Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Azadirachta Indica Aqueous Leaf Extract,â€ J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1â€“7, 2016.
 H. A. Salam, P. Rajiv, M. Kamaraj, P. Jagadeeswaran, S. Gunalan, and R. Sivaraj, â€œPlants : Green Route for Nanoparticle Synthesis,â€ Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 85â€“90, 2012.
 L. Tong, M. Zhao, S. Zhu, and J. Chen, â€œSynthesis and Application of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Targeted Therapy and Imaging of Cancer,â€ Front. Med., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 379â€“387, 2011.
 S. Laurent, D. Forge, M. Port, a Roch, C. Robic, L. V Elst, and R. N. Muller, â€œMagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Stabilization, Vectorization, Physicochemical Characterizations, and Biological Applications (vol 108, pg 2064, 2008),â€ Chem. Rev., vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 2064â€“2110, 2008.
 Q. A. Pankhurst, J. Connolly, J. S. K, and J. Dobson, â€œApplications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine,â€ J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. R167â€“R181, 2003.
 C. Xu and S. Sun, â€œNew Forms of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications,â€ Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 732â€“743, 2013.
 S. F. Chin, S. C. Pang, and C. H. Tan, â€œGreen Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles (via Thermal Decomposition Method) with Controllable Size and Shape,â€ J. Mater. Environ. Sci, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 299â€“302, 2011.
 S. Purushotham and R. V. Ramanujan, â€œThermoresponsive Magnetic Composite Nanomaterials for Multimodal Cancer Therapy,â€ Acta Biomater., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 502â€“510, 2010.
 M. Mahmoudi, S. Sant, B. Wang, S. Laurent, and T. Sen, â€œSuperparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Spions): Development, Surface Modification And Applications in Chemotherapy,â€ Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., vol. 63, no. 1â€“2, pp. 24â€“46, 2011.
 A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. SchÃ¼th, â€œMagnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Protection, Functionalization, and Application,â€ Angew. Chemie - Int. Ed., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1222â€“1244, 2007.
 A. K. Mittal, Y. Chisti, and U. C. Banerjee, â€œSynthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles using Plant Extracts,â€ Biotechnol. Adv., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 346â€“356, 2013.
 S. Saif, A. Tahir, and Y. Chen, â€œGreen Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications,â€ Nanomaterials, vol. 6, no. 11, p. 209, 2016.
 P. Mohanpuria, N. K. Rana, and S. K. Yadav, â€œBiosynthesis of Nanoparticles: Technological Concepts and Future Applications,â€ J. Nanoparticle Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 507â€“517, 2008.
 M. Pattanayak and P. L. Nayak, â€œEcofriendly Green Synthesis Of Iron Nanoparticles From Various Plants And Spices Extractâ€ Research Foundation and Centre for Excellence in Nano Science and Technology , Synergy Institute of Technology,â€ Int. J. Plant, Anim. Environ. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 68â€“78, 2012.
 A. C. Larson and R. B. Von Dreele, â€œGeneral Structure Analysis System,â€ Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LAUR, 86-748, 2004.
 B. H. Toby, â€œEXPGUI , A Graphical User Interface for GSAS,â€ J. Appl. Crystallogr., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 210â€“213, 2001.
 K. C. Maheswari and P. S. Reddy, â€œGreen Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles through Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica,â€ vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 189â€“191, 2016.
 A. M. Awwad and N. M. Salem, â€œA Green and Facile Approach for Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles,â€ Nanosci. Nanotechnol., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 208â€“213, 2013.
 V. S. Zaitsev, D. S. Filimonov, I. A. Presnyakov, R. J. Gambino, and B. Chu, â€œPhysical and Chemical Properties of Magnetite and Magnetite-Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Colloidal Dispersions,â€ J. Coll. Inter. Sci., vol. 212, pp. 49â€“57, 1999.
 H. M. Lu, W. T. Zheng, and Q. Jiang, â€œSaturation Magnetization of Ferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic Nanocrystals at Room Temperature,â€ J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 320â€“325, 2007.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).