Specific Absorption Rate Computation for Human Body Exposure to Mm Waves Using Fuzzy Systems as Approach

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    The interaction between the human tissues and the Radiations waves produce a chemical reaction which increase the temperature in human body tissues, thus this chemical reaction may generate a  several potential health effects as DNA Damage; Alzheimer and brain cancer, despite the previous  studies and several researches, the radiations sources increase daily which drive to expand the spectrum  frequency band that will arrived to 300 GHz with 5G and 6G which allow to connect several objects other than smartphones, tablets and computers. With the 5G or 6G the human body organs will also be connected through the radiation sensors attached to the body. According to the previous studies the evaluation of biological effects caused by the existing radiation sources is achieved according to the Specific Absorption Rate of human body to radiations waves, whereas it increase if the distance between the source of radiation and the human body is short, as well with the higher frequency bands and the emitted power  sources. The objective of this paper is the interpolation of Specific Absorption Rate simulated values by Fuzzy system that allow to have an overview of the absorbed dose of human body exposed to the 5G Radiation’s in an enclosed area.

     

     


  • Keywords


    SAR, Mm waves, wearable devices, Fuzzy System, Sugeno Fuzzy System.

  • References


      [1] A. Gupta and R. K. Jha,”A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies”, IEEE Access, Vol.3, No. 1, (2015), pp. 1206-1232, available online: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2461602 .

      [2] Z. Cao, X. Zhao, F. M. Soares, N. Tessema, and A. M. J. Koonen,” 38-GHz Millimeter Wave Beam Steered Fiber Wireless Systems for 5G Indoor Coverage: Architectures, Devices, and Links ”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron, Vol.53, No. 1, (2017), pp. 1-9, available online: 10.1109/JQE.2016.2640221

      [3] J. Kim, S.C. Kwon, and G. Choi,”Performance of Video Streaming in Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Telematic Platforms With 60-GHz Radiation and IEEE 802.11ad Baseband”, IEEE Trans, ,Vol.65, No.12, (2016),pp:1011110115, 10.1109/JQE.2016.2640221

      [4] H. Wymeersch, G. Seco-Granados, G. Destino, D. Dardari, and F. Tufvesson, ,” 5G mmWave Positioning for Vehicular Networks”, IEEE Wirel. Commun. Vol.24, No. 6, (2017), pp. 80-86.

      [5] Y. Le Dréan et al., ” State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHz,” Comptes Rendus Phys., Vol.14, No. 5, (2013), pp. 402-411.

      [6] Y. Diao and al, ,”Detailed modeling of palpebral fissure and its influence on SAR and temperature rise in human eye under GHz exposures: Detailed Modeling of Palpebral Fissure”, Bioelectromagnetics, Vol.37, No. 4, (2016), pp. 256–263.

      [7] C. Leduc and M. Zhadobov ” Thermal Model of Electromagnetic Skin-Equivalent Phantom at Millimeter Waves”, Vol.65, No. 3, (2017), pp. 1036–1045 ,

      [8] T. Wang and al., ” Spectrum Analysis and Regulations for 5G” in 5G Mobile Communications, W. Xiang, K. Zheng, and X. Shen, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 27–50.

      [9] O. Galinina, H. Tabassum, K. Mikhaylov, S. Andreev, E. Hossain, and Y. Koucheryavy, ”On feasibility of 5G-grade dedicated RF charging technology for wireless-powered wearables”, IEEE Wirel. Commun, , Vol.23, No. 2, (2016), pp. 28-37.

      [10] E. M. Mohamed, K. Sakaguchi, and S. Sampei,” Wi-Fi Coordinated WiGig Concurrent Transmissions in Random Access Scenarios”, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 66, No. 11 (2017). pp. 10357-10371.

      [11] M. Ayyash and al. ,” Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: concepts, opportunities, and challenges ”, IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 54, No. 2, (2016) pp. 64–71.

      [12] D. Colombi, B. Thors, C. Tornevik, and Q. Balzano, “RF Energy Absorption by Biological Tissues in Close Proximity to Millimeter-Wave 5G Wireless Equipment,” IEEE Access, vol. 6 (2018), pp. 4974–4981.

      [13] W. He, B. Xu, M. Gustafsson, Z. Ying, and S. He, “RF Compliance Study of Temperature Elevation in Human Head Model Around 28 GHz for 5G User Equipment Application: Simulation Analysis,” IEEE Access, vol. 6 (2018), pp. 830–838.

      [14] O. P. Gandhi and A. Riazi, “Absorption of Millimeter Waves by Human Beings and its Biological Implications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 34, No. 2,(1986), pp. 228–235.

      [15] A. R. Guraliuc, M. Zhadobov, R. Sauleau, L. Marnat, and L. Dussopt, “Near-Field User Exposure in Forthcoming 5G Scenarios in the 60 GHz Band,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 12,(2017), pp. 6606–6615.

      [16] K. Foster and D. Colombi, “Thermal response of tissue to RF exposure from canonical dipoles at frequencies for future mobile communication systems,” Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, No. 5,(2017), pp. 360–362.

      [17] M.-C. Gosselin et al., “Estimation Formulas for the Specific Absorption Rate in Humans Exposed to Base-Station Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 53, No. 4,(2011), pp. 909–922.

      [18] E. Kivrak, K. Yurt, A. Kaplan, I. Alkan, and G. Altun, “Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on the antioxidant defense system,” J. Microsc. Ultrastruct., Vol. 5, No. 4,(2017) pp. 167.

      [19] A. I. Sulyman, A. T. Nassar, M. K. Samimi, G. R. Maccartney, T. S. Rappaport, and A. Alsanie, “Radio propagation path loss models for 5G cellular networks in the 28 GHZ and 38 GHZ millimeter-wave bands,” IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 52, No. 9, (2014), pp. 78–86.

      [20] G. R. Maccartney, T. S. Rappaport, S. Sun, and S. Deng, “Indoor Office Wideband Millimeter-Wave Propagation Measurements and Channel Models at 28 and 73 GHz for Ultra-Dense 5G Wireless Networks,” IEEE Access, Vol. 3,(2015), pp. 2388–2424.

      [21] H.-C. Yang, C.-M. Cheng, and T.-F. Chein, “A Novel Design of ECG Electrode Combined with Antenna for ZigBee-Based Wireless Measurement,” in 6th World Congress of Biomechanics (WCB 2010). August 1-6, 2010 Singapore, vol. 31, C. T. Lim and J. C. H. Goh, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 1382–1385.

      [22] A. R. Guraliuc, M. Zhadobov, R. Sauleau, L. Marnat, and L. Dussopt, “Near-Field User Exposure in Forthcoming 5G Scenarios in the 60 GHz Band,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 12, (2017),pp. 6606–6615.

      [23] V. Karthik and T. Rama Rao, “ESTIMATION OF SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE USING INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF WEARABLE WIRELESS DEVICES,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. M, Vol. 56, (2017), pp. 101–109.

      [24] K. Zhao, Z. Ying, and S. He, “EMF Exposure Study Concerning mmWave Phased Array in Mobile Devices for 5G Communication,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 15,(2016) pp. 1132–1135.

      [25] H.-N. L. Teodorescu, “Fuzzy Hata-Okumura models for dosimetry computations,” 6th IEEE International Conference on E-Health and Bioengineering (EHB),Index IEEE, (2017), pp. 117–120.

      [26] H.-N. L. Teodorescu, “Coordinate Fuzzy Transforms and Fuzzy Tent Maps – Properties and Applications,” Stud. Inform. Control, Vol. 24, No. 3, (2015), pp.243-250.

      [27] H.-N. L. Teodorescu, “On the Characteristic Functions of Fuzzy Systems,” Int. J. Comput. Commun. Control, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2013), pp. 469-476.

      [28] L. El Amrani, T. Mazri, and N. Hmina, “Specific absorption rate (SAR) in humain body exposed to wirless base station fields,” 9th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, (2017), pp. 1–5.

      [29] L. E. Amrani, T. Mazri, and N. Hmina, “Electric field and specific absorption rate on human approch at point and in whole geographical area” International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM),(2017), pp. 1–5.

      [30] N. Chahat, M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, “Broadband Tissue-Equivalent Phantom for BAN Applications at Millimeter Waves,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 60, No. 7,(2012), pp. 2259–2266.

      [31] N. Chahat, M. Zhadobov, L. Le Coq, S. I. Alekseev, and R. Sauleau, “Characterization of the Interactions Between a 60-GHz Antenna and the Human Body in an Off-Body Scenario,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 12,(2012), pp. 5958–5965.

      [32] N. Betzalel, P. Ben Ishai, and Y. Feldman, “The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?,” Environ. Res, Vol. 163,(2018),, pp. 208–216.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 21783
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.16.21783




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.