A data mining framework for the classification of retinopathy images based on a new multistage prediction algorithm
Keywords:Method of Data Handling, GMDH, Diabetic Retinopathy, Optic Disc, Medical Image processing, Data Mining.
Medical image processing, analysis and classification is a rapidly expanding field providing possible solutions for health care providers including ophthalmologists and optometrists. To be of value, image analysis and classification requires high accuracy and fast processing. Early detection of diabetic retinopathy can lead to better treatment outcomes, especially in rural and remote areas where there is a lack of specialists. In the current work we propose a highly accurate prediction model based on optic disc color characteristics. We propose a data mining algorithm based on a top-down processing framework. The framework involves a new Multistage Prediction algorithm (MSP1) consisting of segmentation of the optic disc, dilation, and color normalization, color histogram determination, and calculating the predicted classification score of each image. The final step carries out the process of classification of all images based on the Group Method of Data Handling(GMDH) application. One hundred and fifty seven images were available for classification. The results indicate that the proposed Multistage Prediction algorithm combined with the GMDH classification framework improved on previous results with an overall accuracy of 96.8%, and sensitivity of 95% and an F-measure for the classification performance of96%. MSP1 is easy to implement on any laptop and therefore provides a robust option for tele-ophthalmology diagnostics of retinopathy.
 KantardzicM.,â€œData Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithmsâ€. 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 552 pages, Wiley-IEEE Press, ISBN: 978-0-470-89045-5. 2011.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118029145.
 Han J., KamberM, and Pei J., "Data Mining Concepts and Techniques". Third edition, Morgan Kaufmann publishers as anreprint by Elsevier, USA, 2012.
 GMDH website, "GMDH algorithms and the algorithms of GMDH type". http://www.gmdh.net/GMDH_typ.htm. 2018.
 Mingzhu Z., Changzheng H., and Panos L., â€œA D-GMDH Model for Time Series Forecastingâ€. Expert Systems with Applications Journal,Vol. 39, Issue 5. (April 2012), 5711-5716. DOI=http: // dx.doi.org /10.1016 / j.eswa. 2011.11.100. 2012.
 GMDH website, â€œGMDH Shell Documentationâ€,http://d.gmdhshell.com/docs/concepts. 2018.
 Abdul Aziz A.andRehman A., â€œDetection of Cardiac Disease using Data Mining Classification Techniquesâ€. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 8, Issue 7, Pages 256-259. 2017.
 Kavakiotis I., Tsave O., Salifoglou A., Maglaveras N., Vlahavas I., ChouvardaI.,â€œMachine Learning and Data Mining Methods in Diabetes Researchâ€. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 15:104-116. doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2016.12.005.2017.
 KamilR., Al-Saedi K. H., Al-Azawi R., "An Accurate System for Measure the Diabetic Retinopathy by Using SVM Classifier".CiÃªncia e TÃ©cnicaVitivinÃcola Journal, 2018. Vol. 33, Issue 1, Pages 135-139. 2018.
 Gulshan V, Peng L, Coram M, et al.,â€œDevelopment and Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Photographsâ€. JAMA,Vol. 316, Issue 22, Pages 2402â€“2410.https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.17216.
 Mahendran G., Dhanasekaran R., â€œInvestigation of the Severity Level of Diabetic Retinopathy using Supervised Classifier Algorithmsâ€. Computers & Electrical Engineering Journal, Vol. 45, Pages 312-323, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2015.01.013.
 KamilR, Al-Saedi K. H., Al-Azawi R., "A Novel Approach for Optic Disc Detection in RGB Retinal Fundus Images". International Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 6, Issue 8, Pages 1263 â€“ 1268, http://www.ijsrpublications.com/ijsr.net/archive/v6i8/v6i8.php, 2017.
 Almazroa A., Burman R., Raahemifar K., Lakshminarayanan V., â€œOptic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Surveyâ€. Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 2015, Article ID 180972, Pages 1-28.
 Alghamdi, H., Tang H., Waheeb, S., and Tunde, P, â€œAutomatic Optic Disc Abnormality Detection in Fundus Images: A Deep Learning Approachâ€. In Proceedings of the Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Third International Workshop, Vol: 3, Pages 17-24, Athens, Greece.
 Sathiyamoorthy C. A. and Kulanthaivel, G., â€œDesign and Develop a Computer Aided Design for Automatic Exudates Detection for Diabetic Retinopathy Screeningâ€. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 11, Issue 4, Pages 605 â€“ 618, 2016.
 Verma, K.; Deep, P.; Ramakrishnan, A. G., "Detection and Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy using Retinal Images". India Conference (INDICON), 2011 Annual IEEE, Vol., Pages 1-6, 16-18 Dec. 2011, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6139346&isnumber=6139311https://doi.org/10.1109/INDCON.2011.6139346.
 Welfer D., Scharcanski J., Cleyson M. K., Dal Pizzol M., LudwigW.B., Marinho R., â€œSegmentation of the Optic Disk in Color Eye Fundus Images using an Adaptive Morphological Approachâ€. Computers in Biology and Medicine Journal, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 124-137.
 DaiB. Xiangqian Wu, Wei Bu, â€œOptic Disc Segmentation Based on VariationalModel with Multiple Energiesâ€. Pattern Recognition Journal, Volume 64, Pages 226-235.
 Mitchell P., Foran, S.Australian Diabetes Society, National Health, and Medical Research Council, â€œGuidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathyâ€, publisher National Health and Medical Research Councilâ€ ISBN 1741866723- 1741866715, https://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn4470187, 2008.
JelinekH.F, Al-SaediK. H. and BÃ¤cklundL.B. "Computer Assisted â€œTop-Downâ€Ÿ Assessment of Diabetic Retinopathy". World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany, IFMBE Proceedings Springer Berlin Heidelberg, ISSN 1680-0737, Vol. 25, Issue 11, Pages 127-130. 2009.
 Kumar SB and Vipula S., â€œAutomatic Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Non-dilated RGB Retinal Fundus Imagesâ€. International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 47, Issue 19, Pages 26â€“32, 2012.
 Thammastitkul A. and UyyanonvaraB, â€œDiabetic Retinopathy Stages Identification Using Retinal Imagesâ€. Annual Internatoinal Conference on Intelligent Computing, Computer Science & Information Systems, April 28-29 (2016), Pattaya, Thailand Pages 20â€“23, 2016.