EEG Calmness Index Establishment Using Computational of Z-Score
Keywords:EEG, calmness index, z-score, alpha waves, Wilcoxon signed ranks test.
A lot of useful information can be obtained through observation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal such as the human psychophysiology. It has been proven that EEG is handy in human diagnosis and tools to observe the brain condition. The study aims to establish a calmness index, which can differentiate the calmness level of an individual. Alpha waves were selected as the data features and computed into asymmetry index. The data features were clustered using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and resulted in three clusters. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was applied to determine the significance of the data features clustered by FCM. The Z-score obtained successfully distinguish three level of calmness index from the lower index until the higher index. With the advancement of signal processing techniques, the feature extractions for calmness index establishment computation is achievable.
 1. Subha, D.P., P.K. Joseph, R. Acharya, and C. M, Lim, EEG signal analysis: A survey. Journal of Medical Systems, 2010, 34(2): 195-212.
 2. Jackson, C.E. and P.J. Snyder, Electroencephalography and event-related potentials as biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimerâ€™s disease. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 2008, 4(1, Supplement 1): S137-S143.
 3. Finnigan, S.P., S.E. Rose, M. Walsh, M. Griffin, A.L. Janke, K.L. McMahon, R. Gillies, M.W. Strudwick, C.M. Pettigrew, J. Semple, and J. Brown, Correlation of quantitative EEG in acute ischemic stroke with 30-day NIHSS score: Comparison with diffusion and perfusion MRI. Stroke, 2004, 35(4): 899-903.
 4. Klimesch, W., EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: A review and analysis. Brain Research Reviews, 1999, 29(2-3): 169-195.
 5. Lal, S.K.L. and A. Craig, A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biological Psychology, 2001, 55(3): 173-194.
 6. La Vaque, T.J., The history of EEG Hans Berger: Psychophysiologist. A historical Vignette. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1999, 3(2): 1-9.
 7. Barry, R.J., A.R. Clarke, R. McCarthy, M. Selikowitz, J.A. Rushby, and E. Ploskova, EEG differences in children as a function of resting-state arousal level. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2004, 115(2): 402-408.
 8. Sigl, J.C. and N.G. Chamoun, An introduction to bispectral analysis for the electroencephalogram. Journal of Clinical Monitoring, 1994, 10(6): 392-404.
 9. Kusserow, M., O. Amft, and G. Troster, Monitoring stress arousal in the wild. Pervasive Computing, 2013, 12(2): 28-37.
 10. Hinrikus, H., A. Suhhova, M. Bachmann, K. Aadamsoo, Ãœ. VÃµhma, J. Lass, and V. Tuulik, Electroencephalographic spectral asymmetry index for detection of depression. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 2009, 47(12): 1291-1299.
 11. Musha, T., S. Kimura, K.I. Kaneko, K. Nishida, and K. Sekine, Emotion spectrum analysis method (ESAM) for monitoring the effects of art therapy applied on demented patients. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 2000, 3(3): 441-446.
 12. Thatcher, R.W., Latest developments in live Z-score training: Symptom check list, phase reset, and Loreta Z-score biofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2013, 17(1): 69-87.
 13. Lias, S., Z. Murat, N. Sulaiman, and M. N. Taib, IQ index using alpha-beta correlation of EEG power spectrum density (PSD). Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2010, pp. 612-616.
 14. Ismail, N., M. H. F.l Rahiman, M. N. Taib, N. A. M. Ali, M. Jamil, and S. N. Tajuddin, Classification of the quality of agarwood oils from Malaysia using Z-score technique. Proceedings of the International Conference on System Engineering and Technology, 2013, pp. 78-82.
 15. Jain, A., K. Nandakumar, and A. Ross, Score normalization in multimodal biometric systems. Pattern Recognition, 2005, 38(12): 2270-2285.
 16. Cheadle, C., M.P. Vawter, W.J. Freed, and K.G. Becker, Analysis of microarray data using Z score transformation. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 2003, 5(2): 73-81.
 17. Ramirez, R.W., The FFT fundamentals and concepts. 1985, Prentice-Hall.
 18. Bellera, C.A., M. Julien, and J.A. Hanley, Normal approximations to the distributions of the Wilcoxon Statistics: Accurate to what N? Graphical Insights. Journal of Statistics Education, 2010, 18(2): 1-17.
 19. Sullivan, M., Statistics: Informed decisions using data. 2004, Pearson Education.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).