Screen Reader on the Wall: Tell Me, How Do I Look on the Photo?
Keywords:screen reader, applications, smartphones, ICT development, visual impairment
Screen reader has become one of the tools that can accommodate the needs of blind people. A lot of information can be accessed directly by blind people independently and do not have to depend on other people's help. Along with the development of technology, there is also the need for the visually impaired, especially for young people with visual impairments who are familiar with information communication technology, to be able to enjoy an image or photo through their smartphone screen. This need arises along with their interaction with the environment that provides knowledge about images that can be enjoyed on a photo, or personal experience before they experience blindness. In addition, there are still some things that are expected by blind people to screen reader capabilities as the main tool they use to "see". Therefore, this study conducted a study on mapping the needs of blind people to the screen reader function through aspects of accessibility tools, based on information sharing patterns, which foster new needs within the people with visual impairments.
 P. Verma, R. Singh, and A. K. Singh, â€œA Framework for the Next Generation Screen Readers for Visually Impaired,â€ Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 31â€“38, 2012.
 J. T. Morris, J. L. Mueller, and M. L. Jones, â€œUse of Social Media During Public Emergencies by People with Disabilities,â€ West. J. Emerg. Med., vol. XV, no. 5, pp. 567â€“574, 2014.
 A. S. Al-Salman, â€œA Bi-directional Bi-Lingual Translation Braille-Text System,â€ J. King Saud Univ. - Comput. Inf. Sci., vol. 20, pp. 13â€“29, 2008.
 A. Hoban, â€œRestricted access: Media, disability, and the politics of participation,â€ Disabil. Soc., 2018.
 A. D. Johnsen, T.-M. GrÃ¸nli, and B. Bygstad, â€œMaking Touch-Based Mobile Phones Accessible for the Visually Impaired,â€ Nor. Inform. Konf., pp. 177â€“188, 2012.
 M. Rioux, C. Gonzalves, and A. Byrnes, Disability Manual. NHRC, 2005.
 L. P. Rosenblum and T. S. Herzberg, â€œBraille and tactile graphics: Youths with visual impairments share their experiences,â€ J. Vis. Impair. Blind., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 173â€“184, 2015.
 N. Isaila, â€œThe assistive software, useful and necessary tool for blind studentâ€™s abilities development,â€ Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 116, pp. 2189â€“2192, 2014.
 V. Voykinska, S. Azenkot, S. Wu, and G. Leshed, â€œHow Blind People Interact with Visual Content on Social Networking Services,â€ Proc. 19th ACM Conf. Comput. Coop. Work Soc. Comput. - CSCW â€™16, pp. 1582â€“1593, 2016.
 M. E. Wong, â€œImproving Literacy of the Visually Impaired in Singapore : Pre- , Post- and In- Between Literacy Considerations,â€ J. Read. Lit., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 107â€“115, 2009.
 S. Sahasrabudhe, R. Singh, and D. Heath, â€œInnovative Affordances for Blind Smartphone Users : A Qualitative Study,â€ J. Technol. Pers. with Disabil., pp. 145â€“156, 2016.
 R. Kuber, A. Hastings, M. Tretter, and D. Fitzpatrick, â€œDetermining the Accessibility of Mobile Screen Readers for Blind Users,â€ Proceeding IASTED Conf. Human-Computer Interact., pp. 182â€“189, 2012.
 R. R. Machado and G. M. D. Vieira, â€œUEFI BIOS Accessibility for the Visually Impaired,â€ Brazilian Symp. Comput. Syst. Eng., 2017.
 J. Lazar, A. Allen, J. Kleinman, and C. Malarkey, â€œWhat Frustrates Screen Reader Users on the Web : A Study of 100 Blind Users What Frustrates Screen Reader Users on the Web : A Study of 100 Blind Users,â€ Int. J. Humanâ€“Computer Interact., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 247â€“269, 2007.
 J. Asuncion, J. Budd, C. S. Fichten, M. Nguyen, M. Barile, and R. Amsel, â€œSocial Media Use By Students With Disabilities,â€ Acad. Exch. Q., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 30â€“35, Editorâ€™s Choice, 2012.
 P. McCarthy and M. Shevlin, â€œOpportunities and challenges in secondary education for blind/vision-impaired people in the Republic of Ireland,â€ Disabil. Soc., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1007â€“1026, 2017.
 A. J. R. Godfrey and M. T. Loots, â€œAdvice From Blind Teachers on How to Teach Statistics to Blind Students,â€ J. Stat. Educ., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1â€“28, 2015.
 J. Laxton, â€œOf Mountains and Molehills : An Overview of Accessibility and Technology for Learning and Teaching,â€ Planet, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 16â€“19, 2002.
 ]C. Shpigelman and C. J. Gill, â€œFacebook Use by Persons with Disabilities,â€ J. Comput. Mediat. Commun., vol. 19, pp. 610â€“624, 2014.
 D. Bragg, C. Bennett, K. Reinecke, and R. Ladner, â€œA Large Inclusive Study of Human Listening Rates,â€ Proc. 36th Annu. ACM Conf. Hum. Factors Comput. Syst., pp. 1â€“12, 2018.
 N. K. Dim, K. Kim, and X. Ren, â€œDesigning motion marking menus for people with visual impairments,â€ Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud., vol. 109, pp. 79â€“88, 2018.
 A. Berger, A. Vokalova, F. Maly, and P. Poulova, â€œGoogle Glass Used as Assistive Technology Its Utilization for Blind and Visually Impaired People,â€ Younas M., Awan I., Holubova I. Mob. Web Intell. Inf. Syst. MobiWIS 2017. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. vol 10486. Springer, Cham, no. July, 2017.
 A. Vashistha, E. Cutrell, N. Dell, and R. Anderson, â€œSocial Media Platforms for Low-Income Blind People in India,â€ Proc. 17th Int. ACM SIGACCESS Conf. Comput. Access. - ASSETS â€™15, 2015.
 J. A. Borges and D. TomÃ©, â€œTeaching music to blind children: New strategies for teaching through interactive use of Musibraille software,â€ Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 27, pp. 19â€“27, 2014.
 M. R. Morris, J. Johnson, C. L. Bennett, and E. Cutrell, â€œRich Representations of Visual Content for Screen Reader Users,â€ Proc. 2018 CHI Conf. Hum. Factors Comput. Syst., 2018.
 L. R. Kearns, B. A. Frey, and G. Mcmorland, â€œDesigning online courses for screen reader users,â€ J. Asynchronous Learn. Netw., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 73â€“85, 2013.
 N. Yurtay, Y. Yurtay, and M. F. Adak, â€œAn Education Portal for Visually Impaired,â€ Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 171, pp. 1097â€“1105, 2015.
 M. S. Hassouna, N. Sahari, and A. Ismail, â€œUniversity website accessibility for totally blind users,â€ J. Inf. Commun. Technol., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 63â€“80, 2017.
 J. T. Nganji, M. Brayshaw, and B. Tompsett, â€œOntology-Based E-Learning Personalisation For Disabled Students in Higher Education.,â€ Innov. Teach. Learn. Inf. Comput. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1â€“11, 2011.
 S. Sulaiman, D. R. A. Rambli, and F. S. M. Zuki, â€œPutting the tactile feedback to Quranic verses and tajweed rules,â€ ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 23, pp. 17996â€“18003, 2015.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).