PWM and duty ratio switching of multiple input converters using FPGAs: a digital logic circuit and VHDL hybrid approach

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    This paper presents work that addresses the need for the simultaneous switching of the gate signals of controllable switches in multiple input DC-DC converters. A hybrid approach of implementing the gate signal switching using a combination of digital logic circuits and the conventional VHDL is used in this research. This approach reduces the complexity of the gate signal switching of multiple input converters when compared to the conventional methods. A new method of designing the digital logic circuits from the steady state waveforms of the multiple input DC-DC converter is also introduced, the logic circuit was verified in simulation and validated experimentally by implementing it on an FPGA development board. From the experimental results presented, the switching of the multiple input converter was achieved with the possibility of using any type of system controller without affecting the operation of the switching signals. A dead time of up to 400 nanoseconds was achieved between the switching signals and ultimately, the new method of designing the digital logic circuit of the converter operation from the steady state waveform was validated.

     


  • Keywords


    PWM Switching; Multiple Input DC-DC Converters; FPGA; Digital Logic Circuit.

  • References


      [1] A. Nahavandi, M. T. Hagh, M. B. B. Sharifian, and S. Danyali, “A nonisolated multiinput multioutput DC-DC boost converter for electric vehicle applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1818–1835, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2325830.

      [2] S. Palanidoss and T. V. S. Vishnu, “Experimental analysis of conventional buck and boost converter with integrated dual output converter,” in 2017 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Communication, Computer, and Optimization Techniques (ICEECCOT), 2017, pp. 323–329. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEECCOT.2017.8284521.

      [3] F. Sobrino-Manzanares and A. Garrigos, “Bidirectional, interleaved, multiphase, multidevice, soft-switching, FPGA-controlled, buck–boost converter with PWM real-time reconfiguration,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 9710–9721, Nov. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2018.2792302.

      [4] X. J. X. Jun, Z. X. Z. Xing, Z. C. Z. Chongwei, W. C. W. Chengyue, and L. S. L. Shengyong, “Design of multiple-input DC-DC converter control system for fuel cell electrical vehicle,” in 2009 International Conference on Energy and Environment Technology, 2009, vol. 2, pp. 123–126.

      [5] Y. Li, S. Member, D. Yang, X. Ruan, and S. Member, “A Systematic Method for Generating Multiple-Input DC / DC Converters,” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1–6, 2008.

      [6] L. Solero, A. Lidozzi, and J. A. Pomilio, “Design of multiple-input power converter for hybrid vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1007–1016, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2005.854020.

      [7] S. Bae and A. Kwasinski, “Dynamic modeling and operation strategy for a microgrid with wind and photovoltaic resources,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1867–1876, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2198498.

      [8] B. Wang, L. Xian, V. R. K. Kanamarlapudi, K. J. Tseng, A. Ukil, and H. B. Gooi, “A digital method of power-sharing and cross-regulation suppression for single-inductor multiple-input multiple-output DC-DC converter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 2836–2847, Apr. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2016.2631438.

      [9] R. G. Kale and A. A. Nilangekar, “Implementation of multiple input and multiple output boost converter for electric vehicle charging system,” in 2017 International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE), 2017, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICNTE.2017.7947940.

      [10] S. N. Shetty and M. A. Raheman, “Modelling of dual input DC/DC converter for hybrid energy system,” in 2017 2nd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT), 2017, pp. 1152–1155. https://doi.org/10.1109/RTEICT.2017.8256779.

      [11] A. Di Napoli, F. Crescimbini, L. Solero, F. Caricchi, and F. G. Capponi, “Multiple-input DC-DC power converter for power-flow management in hybrid vehicles,” Conference Record of the 2002 IEEE Industry Applications Conference. 37th IAS Annual Meeting (Cat. No.02CH37344), vol. 3, pp. 1578–1585, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2002.1043745.

      [12] H. Matsuo, T. Shigemizu, F. Kurokawa, and N. Watanabe, “Characteristics of the multiple-input DC-DC converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference - PESC ’93, 1993, pp. 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1109/PESC.1993.472079.

      [13] M. Gavris, O. Cornea, and N. Muntean, “Multiple input DC-DC topologies in renewable energy systems - A general review,” 2011 IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources (EXPRES), pp. 123–128, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/EXPRES.2011.5741805.

      [14] M. Forouzesh, Y. P. Siwakoti, S. A. Gorji, F. Blaabjerg, and B. Lehman, “Step-Up DC-DC converters: A comprehensive review of voltage-boosting techniques, topologies, and applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 32, no. 12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2017.2652318.

      [15] Z. Rehman, I. Al-Bahadly, and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Multiinput DC–DC converters in renewable energy applications – An overview,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 41, pp. 521–539, Jan. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.033.

      [16] A. Lavanya, J. D. Navamani, K. Vijayakumar, and R. Rakesh, “Multi-input DC-DC converter topologies-a review,” in International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques, ICEEOT 2016, 2016, pp. 2230–2233. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEEOT.2016.7755089.

      [17] M. Truntic and M. Milanovic, “Voltage and current-mode control for a buck-converter based on measured integral values of voltage and current implemented in FPGA,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 6686–6699, Dec. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2301935.

      [18] U. Sadek, A. Sarjaš, R. Svečko, and A. Chowdhury, “FPGA-based control of a DC-DC boost converter,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 22–27, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.08.102.

      [19] U. Sadek, A. Sarjaš, A. Chowdhury, and R. Svečko, “FPGA-based optimal robust minimal-order controller structure of a DC–DC converter with Pareto front solution,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 55, pp. 149–161, Oct. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2016.06.016.

      [20] M. Milanovic, M. Truntic, and P. Slibar, “FPGA implementation of digital controller for DC-DC buck converter,” in Fifth International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications (IWSOC’05), 2005, pp. 439–443. https://doi.org/10.1109/IWSOC.2005.67.

      [21] S. Chander, P. Agarwal, and I. Gupta, “FPGA-based PID controller for DC-DC converter,” in Joint International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES) 2010 Power India, 2010, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/PEDES.2010.5712454.

      [22] S. Kapat and P. T. Krein, “PID controller tuning in a DC-DC converter: A geometric approach for minimum transient recovery time,” in 2010 IEEE 12th Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL), 2010, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMPEL.2010.5562367.

      [23] D. Pellerin and D. Taylor, VHDL Made Easy! Prentice Hall PTR, 1996.

      [24] D. Pellerin, E. A. Thibault, and S. Thibault, Practical FPGA Programming in C. Prentice Hall PTR, 2005.

      [25] D. O. Neacsu, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition. CRC Press, 2017.

      [26] G. M. Dousoky, M. Shoyama, and T. Ninomiya, “FPGA-based spread-spectrum schemes for conducted-noise mitigation in DC–DC power converters: Design, implementation, and experimental investigation,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 429–435, Feb. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2049708.

      [27] P. Zumel, C. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. Lazaro, and A. Barrado, “Step-by-step design of an FPGA-based digital compensator for DC/DC converters oriented to an introductory course,” IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 599–609, Nov. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TE.2010.2100397

      [28] J. M. Blanes, R. Gutierrez, A. Garrigos, J. L. Lizan, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Electric vehicle battery life extension using ultracapacitors and an FPGA controlled interleaved buck–boost converter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 5940–5948, Dec. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2255316.

      [29] E. Jamshidpour, P. Poure, and S. Saadate, “Photovoltaic systems reliability improvement by real-time FPGA-based switch failure diagnosis and fault-tolerant DC–DC converter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 7247–7255, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2015.2421880.

      [30] S. Natarajan and R. Natarajan, “An FPGA chaos-based PWM technique combined with simple passive filter for effective EMI spectral peak reduction in DC-DC converter,” Advances in Power Electronics, vol. 2014, pp. 1–11, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/383089.

      [31] E. Guzman Ramirez, I. Garcia, E. Guerrero, and C. Pacheco, “A tool for supporting the design of DC-DC converters through FPGA-based experiments,” IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 289–296, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2016.7430091.

      [32] A. Hintz, U. R. Prasanna, and K. Rajashekara, “Novel modular multiple-input bidirectional DC-DC power converter (MIPC),” in 2014 International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE ASIA), 2014, pp. 2343–2350. https://doi.org/10.1109/IPEC.2014.6869917.

      [33] I. N. Jiya, N. Gurusinghe, and R. Gouws, “Hybridization of Battery, Supercapacitor and Hybrid Capacitor for Electric Vehicles,” in 2018 IEEE PES-IAS PowerAfrica Conference, 2018, pp. 351–356.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 20073
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.20073




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.