Development of the best prediction matrix mode algorithm forintra prediction in h.264 encoder
Keywords:Best Prediction Matrix Mode(BPMM), Compression Efficiency, H.264/AVC, Huffman Coding, Intra Prediction.
The video compression techniques began to impose themselves on the ground in recent years, as it can provide sending the videos using less transmission bandwidth or stored in less storage space. One of these innovative compression techniques is the H.264 standard which has huge significance in terms of technology. Thus attracted our interest as researchers since a few years ago and prompted us to propose a new efficient intra prediction scheme and it has been termed the Best Prediction Matrix Mode (BPMM). This novel prediction technique had achieved impressive results for each of compression ratios, bit rates, and PSNR. In this paper, we discuss how we can develop our predic-tion scheme to mitigate some of its major challenges concerning the relatively large encoding overhead and make it more realizable. Namely using entropy coding, the encoding overhead could be appreciably reduced to the level of the conventional intracoding techniques. We have utilized hardware description language VHDL to evaluate the performance of our proposed prediction scheme. The results show that superior interceding performance could be achieved without scarifying space for encoding overhead. We would like to recommend our intra-prediction algorithm, BPMM, in the ITU reference design of H.264.
 Elyousfi, A. El Hachimi, and H. Hamout, "Texture complexity based fast and efficient intra block mode decision algorithm for H. 264/AVC", IEEE, (2017), pp. 1-4.
 S. Zhu, S. Zhang, and C. Ran," An improved inter-frame prediction algorithm for video coding based on fractal and H. 264", IEEE Access.,5(2017),pp.18715-18724. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2745538.
 M. H. Al-Jammas and N. N. Hamdoon, "FPGA Implementation of Intra Frame for H. 264/AVC Based DC Mode", International. Journal of Computer. Engineering. In addition, Information. Technology, 9 (2017), pp. 264-270.
 N. Manjanaik, B. D. Parameshachari, "S. N. Hanumanthappa, and R. Banu, Intra Frame Coding In Advanced Video Coding Standard (H. 264) to Obtain Consistent PSNR and Reduce Bit Rate for Diagonal Down Left Mode Using Gaussian Pulse",IOP Publishing,(2017), p. 012209.
 A. S. Hamdy, B. M. E. Ibrahim, and C. M. B. Abdelhalim, "Efficient H. 264 intra prediction scheme based on best prediction matrix mode", IEEE, (2013), pp. 363-367.
 S. Hamdy, M. E. Ibrahim, and A. Zekry,"VHDL realization of efficient H. 264 intra prediction scheme based on best prediction matrix mode", Int. J. Comput. Appl., 77 (2013) pp.1-7.
 S. C. Hsia, W. K. Wong, and Y. H. Shih, "Fast-efficient algorithm of high-profile intra prediction for H.264 encoding system",IET.Image Processing.,12(2017),pp.329-336. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-ipr.2017.0226.
 D. Mathew and M. C. Binish, "A Fast Intra Prediction for H. 264/AVC Based on SATD and Prediction Direction", Procedia.Technology, 24 (2016) pp. 1016-1023.
 C. C. Kao, Y. T. Lai, and C. F. "Tseng, Laplacian-based H. 264 intra-prediction mode decision", IEEE,(2012), pp. 638-641.
 C. E. Rhee, T. S. Kim, and H. J. Lee, "An H. 264 high-profile intra-prediction with adaptive selection between the parallel and pipelined executions of prediction modes", IEEE transactions. On multimedia.16(2014),pp.947-959. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2014.2306396.
 A. Elyousfi, "Gravity direction-based ultra-fast intraprediction algorithm for H. 264/AVC video coding, Signal", Image and Video. Processing.  (2013), pp. 53-65.
 A. Elyousfi, "An improved fast mode decision method for H. 264/AVC intracoding, Advances", in Multimedia. 2014 (2014), p. 7.
 A. Elyousfi, H. Hamout, and A. El Hachimi, "An efficient intra block size decision for H.264/AVC encoding optimization", IEEE, (2016), pp. 1-5.
 R. B. Mamatha and N. Keshaveni, "Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H. 264", International. Journal of Computer. Applications.126 (2015).
 C. Y. Wu and P. C. Su, "Fast intra-coding for H. 264/AVC by using projection-based predicted block residuals", IEEE transactions. on multimedia.15(2013),pp.1083-1093. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2013.2247033.
 Youn-Long Steve Lin, Chao-Yang Kao Hung-ChihKuo and Jian-Wen Chen. "VLSI Design for Video Coding: H.264/AVC Encoding from Standard Specification to Chip", Springer Publishing Company, (2010).
 L. Wang, L. M. Po, Y. M. S. Uddin, K. M. Wong, and S. Li, "A novel weighted cross prediction for H.264 intracoding", Citeseer,(2009), pp. 165-168.
 I. E. Richardson, "The H. 264 advanced video compression standard", John Wiley & Sons, (2011).
 Y. Chen, G. C. Wan, L. Y. Tang, and M. S. Tong, "Huffman coding method based on parallel implementation of FPGA",IEEE,(2017), pp. 2207-2211.https://doi.org/10.1109/PIERS-FALL.2017.8293506.
 M. Hameed, H. Shakor, and I. Razak, "Low power text compression for Huffman coding using Altera FPGA with power management controller", IEEE,(2018), pp. 18-23.
 Y. S. Jang, M. R. Usman, M. A. Usman, and S. Y. Shin, Swapped "Huffman tree coding application for low-power wide-area network (LPWAN)",IEEE,(2016),pp.53-58. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSGTEIS.2016.7885766.
 P. Mbewe and S. D. Asare, "Analysis and comparison of adaptive huffman coding and arithmetic coding algorithms", IEEE, (2017), pp. 178-185.https://doi.org/10.1109/FSKD.2017.8393036.
 M. R. Usman, M. A. Usman, and S. Y. Shin, "A novel encoding-decoding scheme using huffman coding for multimedia networks",IEEE,(2018), pp. 1-6.
 A. H. Henson, "264 Hardware Encoder in VHDL", Tech. Rep., Zexia. Access. Ltd., (2008).