Urban climate resilience in Indian cities: current practices and challenges in mainstreaming adaptation to climate change
Keywords:Climate Change Resilience, Disaster Mitigation, Sustainable Development, Urban Planning.
The urban population in India is expected to increase by about 500 million in the next 50 years, which would catapult Indian urban regions towards climate change related disasters such as extreme temperatures and precipitation, droughts, river and inland flooding, storm surges and coastal flooding, sea-level rise and other environmental risks. Large gaps exist in the demand and supply of infrastructure and services in urban regions. A radially outward approach is necessary for cities to integrate mitigation and adaptation policies into their urban design and planning philosophy. Municipal authorities are already grappling with shortages in basic infrastructure and therefore, mainstreaming adaptation and resilience is not high on the priority list of government bodies in the country. There is a need to adopt a pan-sectoral approach to upgrade mitigation and adaptation policies and to motivate actors from different sectors for a holistic integration of urban resilience into the design and planning fabric of urban regions in India. Urban climate vulnerability of India is not only a technical challenge, but is also deeply rooted into the social and cultural ethos of the country; we must realize that resilience building in the nation cannot be merely a physical planning exercise but has to be socially equitable as well. Through this paper, an effort has been made to examine the current structure and practices which are in place in Indian cities for the purpose of mainstreaming disaster adaptation. For this purpose, the paper analyses emerging lessons, experiences and limitations of resilience design and planning in select cities of Asia associated with the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN), a network which is dedicated towards identifying vulnerabilities and mainstreaming agendas associated with resilience design and planning and disaster mitigation and adaptation. Several Indian cities are a part of this network as well. Internationally, commendable and exhaustive work has been done for mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in the primary design and planning of cities, and this is indeed helpful for formulating suitable standards which could be applicable to the architectural policies for a resilient urban India. Additionally, this paper would also analyse and examine various challenges and roadblocks that are faced by urban governance in strengthening management and mitigation practices in India to deal with hazards. Finally, the paper would end by describing possible adaptation frameworks for encouraging efficient resilience architecture and planning in urban India.
 UN-Habitat. . (2010b). the State of Asian Cities 2010/2011. Fukuoka, Japan: United Nations Human Settlements Program.
 United-Nations. (2010). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
 Key-Concepts. (n.d.). Resilience Alliance webpage. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://www.resilience.org/index.php/key_concepts.
 Berke, P. (2010). Catastrophe, in Hutchison, Ray (ed.) Encyclopedia of Urban Studies. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
 Laquian, A. (2005). Beyong Metropolis: The Planning and Governance of Asia's Mega Urban Regions. Washington DC, Baltimore MD: Woodrpw Wilson Centre Press; Johm Hopkins University Press.
 Vogel, R. K. (2010b). Governing Global City Regions in China and the West (Chapter 1). In R. K. Vogel, H. V. Savitch, J. Xu, A. Yeh, W. Wu, A. Sancton, et al., Governing Global City Regions in China and the West, Progress in Planning, 73 (pp. 4-10).
 Brown, A., Dayal, A., & Rio, C. R. (2012). From Practice to Theory: emerging lessons learnt from Asia for building urban climate change resilience. International Institute for Environment and Development, 531-556.
 United-Nations. (2012). World Urbanization Prospects revision. Retrieved February 15, 2018, from United Nations: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/index.html.
 Tyler, M. S., & Moench. (2011). Catalyzing Urban Climate Resilience: Applying Resilience Concepts to Planning Practice in the ACCCRN Programme (2009-2011). Retrieved February 16, 2018, from ISET-Boulder, Bangkok: http://www.i-s-e-t.org/ images/ pdfs/ ISET_ Catalyzing Urban Resilience_all chapters.pdf.
 ACCCRN. (2011). Bandar Lampung City resilience strategy to climate change 2011-2013. (ACCCRN, Ed.) Retrieved February 17, 2018, from Bandar Lampung ACCCRN city working group: http://www.acccrn.org/sites/default/files/documents/Bandar%20Lampung%20Poster.pdf.
 Corps, M. (2011). Semerang - Building Resilience on the Ground. Retrieved February 22, 2018, from ACCCRN: http://www.acccrn.org/content/city-initiative-section-semarang-building-resilience-ground.
 Jinnai, H. (1990). The Spatial Structure of Edo. In C. Nakane, & S. Oishi, Tokugawa Japan: Social and Economic Antecedants of Modern Japan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
 Sorensen, A. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the 21st Century. London: Routledge.
 Rozman, G. (1973). Urban Networks in Ch'ing China and Tokugawa Japan. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton.
 Smith, H. D. (1978). Tokyo as an Idea: an exploration of Japanese urban thought until 1945. Journal of Japanese Studies, 45-80.
 Seidensticker, E. (1991). Low City, High City: Tokyo from Edo to the Earthquake: how the shogun's ancient capital became a great modern city 1867-1923. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
 Kato, T. (1994). Governing Edo. In J. L. McClain, J. M. Merriman, & K. Ugawa, Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
 Tsuru, S. (1999). The political economy of the environment: the case of Japan. London: The Athlone Press.
 Hasegawa, K. (2004). Constructing civil society in Japan: voices of environmental movements. Melbourne: Vic: Trans-Pacific.
 Wankhade K (2013) JNNURM and environmental sustainability. Ideas for India: For more evidence-based policy. Available at: http://www.ideasforindia.in/article.aspx?article_id=199 (accessed 16 August 2015).
 Bouton S, Cis D, Mondonca L, et al. (2013) How to Make a City Great. London: McKinsey and Company.
 Singh K (2015) For Smart, sustainable cities. In: Urban update: vision for cities 2015, I (IX), January.
 TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) (2014) Climate Proofing Indian Cities: A Policy Perspective. New Delhi: TERI.
 Reed SO, Friend R, Jarvie J, et al. (2015) Resilience projects as experiments: Implementing climate change resilience in Asian cities. Climate and Development 7(5): 469-480.
 Birkmann J, Garschagen M, Krass F, et al. (2010) Adaptive urban governance: New challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science 5(2): 185-206.
 ISET (Institute for Social and Environmental Transition) (2013) Actions on Urban Climate Resilience. Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International, Thailand Environmental Institute, Mercy Corps Indonesia, Gorakhpur Environment Action Group.
 Friend R and Jarvie J (2014) beyond mainstreaming-reframing governance for urban climate resilience. International Association for Climate Change 52: 14-18.
 HPEC, GoI (High Powered Expert Committee, Government of India) (2011) Report on Urban Infrastructure and Services. New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India.
 TERI and AMCHAM (The Energy Resources Institute & American Chamber of Commerce) (2014) Smart Solutions for Sustainable Cities: A Policy Perspective. New Delhi: TERI.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).