Effect of the Nematode-Trapping Fungus Dactylaria Brochopaga and the Nematode Egg Parasitic Fungus Verticilium Chlamydosporium in Controlling Citrus Nematode Infesting Mandarin, And Interrelationship with the Co Inhabitant Fungi
Keywords:T. Semipenetrans, biocontrol, Dactylaria brochopaga, Verticilium chlamydosporium, Mandarin
AbstractIn a field experiment, the nematode-trapping fungus Dactylaria brochopaga and the nematode egg parasitic fungus Verticilium chlamydosporium , was evaluated against the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans infesting Mandarin, Citrus reticulata, , the mixed compound was applied in October 2016 at the rate ½ kg/tree, and root and soil samples were collected monthly until the next October, 2017. Successive treatment of the same mixed compound was added in the end of April 2017. For the comparison, Vydate 24% L. was applied as well as non treated check trees were left. Data revealed that the mixed compound treatment greatly affected the citrus nematode numbers both in soil and roots, in comparing with those of Vydate or induced by mixed compound was 97% and 70%; respectively in soil and roots. Rates of reproduction increase of the citrus nematode also reached 3% and 30% in both soil and roots; respectively. Vydate treatment resulted in a relatively lesser percentages. Growth of the concomitant fungus, Trichoderma sp. was increased specially in the last samples of October 2017, however those of fungi; Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp. And Rhizopus sp. was reduced, due to mixed compound treatment. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were not affected by the presence of the mixed compound. Vydate did not affect the co inhabitant fungi to a great extent.
 Aboul-Eid, H.Z. (1963). Studies on some aspects of nematode biological control. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ., 100pp.
 Aboul-Eid, H.Z.; Abdel-Bari, N.A.; Ameen H.H. and Noweer, E.A. (1997). The Morphological Identity of twelve Nematode-Antagonistic Fungi and the Bacterium Pasteuria penetrans isolated from El-Mansouria Region soils No 1, Nu (38-59).
 Christie, J.R. and Perry, V.G. (1951). Remaining nematodes from soil. Proc. Helminth. Soc. Wash. 18: 160-168.
 Cobb, N.A. (1918). Estimating the nema population of soil. U.S. Dept. Agric. Bur. Plant Ind., Agr. Tech. Cir. 1: 1-48.
 Fernandez-Diaz-Silveira, M. and Ortega-Herrera, J. (1998). An overview of nematological problems in Cuba. Nematropica, 28: 151-164.
 Galuilina, E.A. (1951). The predatory Hyphomycetes from soil of Turkmenistan-Microbiology (Moscow) 20: 6-48.
 Harwig, J.; Scatt, P.M.; Statlez, D.R. and Blanch Field, B.J. (1979). Toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 38: 267-274.
 Mangat, B.P.S. and Bhatti, D.S. (1988). Studies on the interactions of Fusarium solani (isolates-I and II) and Fusarium oxysporum with Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 on Citrus jambdiri. J. Nematol. 20: 646-647.
 Mani, A.; Murthy, I.; Rao, P. and Prasad, V. (1989). Growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus on natural substrates and its efficacy against citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans J. Biol. Control. 3: 59-61.
 Mankau, R. and Bartnicki, E.W. (1987). Studies on the biology of nematode trapping fungi associated with the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans. J. Nematol. 19: 540.
 Noweer, E.M.A. (2014). Effects of some nematode-trapping fungi on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp. infesting white bean Phaseolus vulgaris and sugar beet Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris under field conditions. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 5(5) 209-213.
 Noweer, E.M.A. and Aboul-Eid H. Z. (2013). Biological control of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infesting cucumber Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Alfa by the nematode-trapping fungus Dactylaria brochopaga under field conditions. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 4(4) 435-440.
 Noweer, E.M.A. and Mona E. M. Al-Shalaby. (2014). Evaluation of Nematophagous fungi Dactylaria brochopaga and Arthrobotrys dactyloides against Meloidogyne incognita infesting peanut plants under field conditions. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 5(5) 193-197.
 Parvatha-Reddy, P.; Khan, R. and Rao, M. (1991). Integrated management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans using oil cakes and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Afro-Asian J. Nematol. 1: 221-222.
 Reddy, P.; Rao, M.; Mohandas, S. and Nagesh, M. (1995). Integrated management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb using VA mycorrhiza, Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxt.) Gerd & Trappe and oil cakes. 1: 37-41.
 Reddy, P.; Rao, M. and Nagesh, M. (1996). Integrated management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans using pesticides and parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus. Pest Mnage. In Hortic. Ecosystems. 2: 61-63.
 Reddy, P.; Rao, M. and Nagesh, M. (1996b). Management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, by integration of Trichoderma harzianum with oil cakes. Nematol. Medit. 24: 265-267.
 Reddy, P.; Rao, M. and Nagesh, M. (1996c). Management of the citrus nematode on acid lime by integration of parasitic fungi and oil cakes. Pest Manage-in-Hortic. Ecosystems. 2: 15-18.
 Shephered, A.M. (1955). Some observations on the distribution and biology of fungi predaceous on nematodes. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. 01 Land.
 Snathi, A.; Rajeshwari, S. and Sivakumar, C. (1998). Field evaluation of Rhizobacterium, pseudomonas fluorescence for the management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Proceedings of national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture, Anond, India, 23-25 November, 1998, 38-42.
 Trajan, A.C. (1961). Attempts at controlling citrus burrowing nematodes using nematode-trapping fungi. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 21: 17-36.
 Walker, G. and Morey, B.(1999). Effects of chemicals and microbial antagonists on nematode and fungal pathogens of citrus roots. Austr. J. Experiment. Al Agric. 39: 629-637.
 Walter, D. and Kaplan, D. (1990). Antagonists of plant parasitic nematode in Florida citrus. J. Nematol., 22: 567-573.
 Warrior, P.; Rehberger, L.; Beach, M.; Grau, P.; Kirfman, G. and Conley, J. (1990). Commercial development and introduction of Ditera R. a new nematicide. Pesticide Sci. 55: 376-379.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).