Modified and secure adaptive clustering approach for autonomic wireless sensor network with minimum radio energy


  • Sandip Mandal DIT University
  • Rama Sushil DIT University





Wireless Sensor Networks, Wormhole, Denial of Service, Routing Attacks, in-Band Wormhole.


Wireless sensor networks are a trend of the past few years, and they involve deploying a large number of small nodes. The rapid advancement of wireless technology has enabled the development of small, powerful and expensive sensor nodes, which are capable of sensing, computation and wireless communication. The sensor networks can be used in environmental changes and report, health, military etc. Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational capacities and memory. For these reasons, researchers are currently focusing on the design of power-aware protocols and algorithms for sensor networks. Clustering based schemes are believed to be the most energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Clustering is grouping of similar objects or the process of finding a natural association among some specific objects or data. Clustering leverages the advantages of small transmit distances for most of nodes, requiring only a few nodes to transmit far distances to the sink/base station.

The main objective is to develop an energy efficient routing protocol based on clustering along with the reduction in energy consumption so that it improves network lifetime. In the first phase of this work, a number of energy efficient protocols have been studied. In this phase an energy efficient clustering scheme is developed modifying an existing clustering technique namely Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH). Finally the performance of the present scheme is measured and compared with the LEACH and another existing scheme via MATLAB Simulation Tools. And the results clearly show that it’s performed 17%-21 % better than existing protocols




[1] APrasannajit B, Anupama, Vindhykumari, Subhashini and Vinitha , “An Approach Towards Detection Of Wormhole Attack in Sensor Networks,†Integrated Intelligent Computing (ICIIC) First International Conference on, IEEE , E-ISBN 978-0-7695-4152-5 pp 283-289 , 2010

[2] Karlof & Wanger, “Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Network: Attacks and Countermeasures,†First IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications, SNPA, pp 113-127 2003

[3] Khalil, Bagchi, & Shroff, “LiteWorp: Detection And Isolation Of The Wormhole Attack in Static Multi hop Wireless Networks ,†International Journal Of Computer And Telecommunications Networking, vol. 51(13),pp 3750-3772

[4] Y. C. Hu, A. Perrig and D. B. Johnson, “Packet Leashes: A Defense against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks, “22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), pp. 1976-1986 2003

[5] Van Tran, Le Xuan Hung, Young-Koo Lee, Sungyoung Lee and Heejo Lee,†TTM: An Efficient Mechanism to Detect Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, “4th IEEE conference on Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, pp. 593 – 598

[6] J. Zhen and S. Srinivas, “Preventing replay attacks for secure routing in ad hoc networks, “Proceedings of 2nd Ad Hoc Networks & Wireless (ADHOCNOW'03), pp. 140—150,2003

[7] W. Wang and B. Bhargava, “Visualization of wormholes in sensor networks, “Wise, Proceedings of the 2004 ACM workshop on Wireless security. ACM Press, pp. 51−60 2004

[8] S. Özdemir, M. Meghdadi, and Ã. Güler, “A time and trust based wormhole detection algorithm for wireless sensornetworks,â€3rd Information Security and Cryptology Conference (ISC′08), pp. 139−4, 2008

[9] Ali Modirkhazeni, Saeedeh Aghamahmoodi, Arsalan Modirkhazeni, Naghmeh Niknejad,†Distributed Approach to Mitigate Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks†IEEE,pp 122-128 , 2011

[10] Phillip Lee, Andrew Clark, Linda Bushnell1,and Radha Poovendran, “A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems ,â€IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Special Issue On Control of Cyber Physical Systems 2013

[11] Yih-Chun Hu,Adrian Perrig and David B.johnson. Packet leashes: A defense against wormhole attacks in wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2003, April 2003.

[12] Tuomas Aura,Pekka Nikander,and Jussipekka Leiwo. DOS-resistant authentication with client puzzles. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2133:170.177, 2001.

[13] Jiang changyong, Zhang jianming. “The selective forwarding attacks detection in WSNsâ€. Computer Engineering, 2009, 35(21):140-143

[14] Bo Yu and Bin Xiao. Detecting selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks. In Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2006. IPDPS 2006. 20th International, page 8 pp., 2006.

[15] Sophia Kaplantzis , Alistair Shilton , Nallasamy Mani , Y. Ahmet S¸ekercio glu ,†Detecting Selective Forwarding Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks using Support Vector Machinesâ€, intelligent sensors, sensor networks and information ,3rd international conference ,pp 335 – 340,ISSNIP 2007 .

[16] Jeremy Brown and Xiaojiang Du. “Detection of selective forwarding attacks in heterogeneous sensor networks. “ InICC, pages 1583–1587, 2008

[17] Wang Xin-sheng, Zhan Yong-zhao, Xiong Shu-ming, and Wang Liangmin. Lightweight defense scheme against selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks. pages 226 –232, Oct. 2009

[18] Zurina Mohd Hanapi, Mahmod Ismail and Kasmiran Jumari, Priority and Random Selection for Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networkâ€, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2 (2): 494- 500, 2009

[19] Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Hassan Jameel, Brian J. d’Auriol, Heejo Lee, Sungyoung Lee and Young-Jae Song,†Achieving Network Level Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks “,Sensors 2010, 10, 1447-1472;

[20] Guorui Li, Xiangdong Liu, and Cuirong Wang “A Sequential Mesh Test based Selective Forwarding Attack Detection Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networksâ€

[21] Fan Xiangning, Song Yulin. "Improvement on LEACH Protocol of Wireless Sensor Networkâ€, International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, IEEE, SENSORCOMM.2007.21.

[22] D. Kumar, T.C. Aseri, R.B. Patel,†EECDA: Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networking. J. of Computers, Communications & Control, ISSN 1841-9836, E-ISSN 1841-9844 Vol. VI (2011), No. 1 (March), pp. 113-124.

[23] Gaojuan Fan, Ruchuan Wang, Haiping Huang, Lijuan Sun and Chao Sha,†Coverage-Guaranteed Sensor Node Deployment Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks†Sensors 2010, 10, 2064-2087.

[24] Fan Xiangning, Song Yulin , †Improvement on LEACH Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network “Institute of RF-&-OE-ICs, School of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

[25] M. Vahabi, M. F. A. Rasid, R. S. A. R. Abdullah, and M. H. F. Ghazvini,†Adaptive Data Collection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks†IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.6, June 2008.

[26] Wei Bo Hu Han, Ying Fu Wen,†An Improved LEACH Protocol for Data Gathering and Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks†International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering, China, IEEE, ICCEE.2008.59.

View Full Article: