A Systematic Literature Review of the Barriers to Job Placement for Person with Disabilities
Keywords:Persons with Disabilities, Job Placement, Employment, Labour Market.
People often fail to realize that the disabled population is an important but largely untapped human resource. Prejudices and misconceptions about person with disabilitiesâ€™ ability to perform and compete in the open market are likely to be the cause. This research endeavor provides an overview of some of the factors that contributes for low ratio of job placements for persons with disabilities. Study about such factors is imperative so as to improve understanding regarding this phenomenon and increase employment opportunities for person with disabilities. Review of literature is carried out to highlight the barriers to job placement for persons with disabilities. Some of the barriers highlighted in this study are the attitude of the employers towards the hiring of persons with disabilities, job demand, and attitude of disabled persons. This paper concludes that more training and awareness programs should be conducted to educate employers about human resource policies, practices and strategies for persons with disabilities to improve their participation in the mainstream workforce. This research will have useful implications for the policy makers for incorporating untapped human resource in the form of persons with disabilities.
 Powers, T. (2008). Recognizing ability: The skills and productivity of persons with disabilities. Literature review. Switzerland: International Labour Office, Geneva.
 Licona, G. H. (2001). Disability and the labor market in Latin America. Annual conference of the Inter-American Development Bank. Chile. Retrieved from http://www.disabilityworld.org/07-08_01/employment/labor2.shtml
 Islam, M. R. (2015). Rights of the people with disabilities and social exclusion in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(2), 171.
 World Bank. (2005). Development outreach: Disability and inclusive development. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/805041468314726419/pdf/4062010color.pdf
 ILO. (2003). Employment of People with Disabilities, the Impact of Legislation: Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_90_en.pdf
 Major, B. & Eccleston, C. P. (2005). Stigma and Social Exclusion In D. Abrams, M. A. Hogg and J. M. Marques. (Ed.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 63-87). New York: Psychology Press.
 Leyens, J. P., Paladino, P. M., Rodriguez-Torres, R., Vaes, J., Demoulin, S., Rodriguez-Perez, A. & Gaunt, R. (2000). The Emotional Side of Prejudice: The Attribution of Secondary Emotions to in groups and Outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 186-197.
 Sloane, P. J. & Jones, M. K. (2012). Disability and Social Exclusion In G. Parodi and D. Sciulli. (Ed.), Social Exclusion: Short and Long Term Causes and Consequences (pp. 127-148). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
 Coughlan, S. (2010). Disabled are socially excluded says Scope survey. BBC News education and family correspondent. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/education-11139534
 Yfantopoulos, Y. (2002). Disability and Social Exclusion in the European Union: Time for change, tools for change. Final study report, June 2002. Retrieved from http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO7040/disability_and_social_exclusion_report.pdf
 National Disability Strategy Consultation Report. (2009). SHUT OUT: The Experience of People with Disabilities and their Families in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/nds_report.pdf
 Tobias, E. I. & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2017). Disability and Social Exclusion. Psychology and Developing Societies. 29(1), 22-43.
 Burchardt, T. (2003). Being and becoming: Social exclusion and the onset of disability. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28310/1/CASEreport21.pdf
 European Disability Forum. (2017). International Youth Day 2017: Voices of Young People with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.edf-feph.org/newsroom/news/international-youth-day-2017-voices-young-people-disabilities
 Veres, O., Ujhelyi, S. & SzabÃ³, D. (2013). Social exclusion of handicap people in Hungary. Retrieved from http://netaware.ue.katowice.pl/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/National-report-Hungary-Handicapped.pdf
 Appleton-Dyer, S. & Field, A. (2014). Understanding the factors that contribute to social exclusion of disabled people. Rapid review for Think Differently. Retrieved from https://www.odi.govt.nz/assets/Guidance-and-Resources-files/Understanding-the-factors-that-contribute-to-the-exclusion-of-disabled-people-November-2014.pdf
 United Nations & Byrnes, A. (2007). From Exclusion to Equality: Realizing the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Handbook for Parliamentarians on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Its Optional Protocol: United Nations, Office of the High Commisioner for Human Rights.
 Disabled World. (2012). The Costs of Marginalizing People with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.disabled-world.com/editorials/marginalizing.php
 Jasper, C. R. & Waldhart, P. (2012). Retailer perceptions on hiring prospective employees with disabilities. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(1), 116-123.
 Houtenville, A. & Kalargyrou, V. (2012). People with disabilities: Employers' perspectives on recruitment practices, strategies, and challenges in leisure and hospitality. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 53(1), 40-52.
 Henry, A. D., Petkauskos, K., Stanislawzyk, J. & Vogt, J. (2014). Employer-recommended strategies to increase opportunities for people with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 41(3), 237-248.
 Kocman, A., Fischer, L. & Weber, G. (2017). The Employersâ€™ perspective on barriers and facilitators to employment of people with intellectual disability: A differential mixed-method approach. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31(1), 120-131.
 Ang, M. C. H., Ramayah, T. & Amin, H. (2015). A theory of planned behavior perspective on hiring Malaysians with disabilities. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 34(3), 186-200.
 Fraser, R. T., Johnson, K., Hebert, J., Ajzen, I., Copeland, J., Brown, P. & Chan, F. (2010). Understanding employer's hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: Preliminary findings. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20(4), 420-426.
 Kim, M. S. & Hunter, J. E. (1993). Attitudeâ€behavior relations: A metaâ€analysis of attitudinal relevance and topic. Journal of communication, 43(1), 101-142.
 Domzal, C., Houtenville, A. & Sharma, R. (2008) Survey of Employer Perspectives on the Employment of People with Disabilities: Technical Report, Prepared under Contract to the Office of Disability and Employment Policy. US Department of Labor, CESSI, McLean. Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/odep/research/SurveyEmployerPerspectivesEmploymentPeopleDisabilities.pdf
 Kaye, H. S., Jans, L. H. & Jones, E. C. (2011). Why donâ€™t employers hire and retain workers with disabilities? Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 21(4), 526-536.
 Hernandez, B., McDonald, K., Divilbiss, M., Horin, E., Velcoff, J. & Donoso, O. (2008). Reflections from employers on the disabled workforce: Focus groups with healthcare, hospitality and retail administrators. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 20(3), 157-164.
 Luecking, R. G. (2008). Emerging employer views of people with disabilities and the future of job development. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 29(1), 3-13.
 GrÃ¶schl, S. (2007). An exploration of HR policies and practices affecting the integration of persons with disabilities in the hotel industry in major Canadian tourism destinations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(3), 666-686.
 Tiun, L. T. & Khoo, S. L. (2013). Challenges Faced by Malaysians with Disabilities in the World of Employment. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271123597_Challenges_Faced_by_Malaysians_with_Disabilities_in_the_World_of_Employment
 Ali, M., Schur, L. & Blanck, P. (2011). What types of jobs do people with disabilities want? Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 21(2), 199-210.
 Vornholt, K., Uitdewilligen, S. & Nijhuis, F. J. N. (2013). Factors affecting the acceptance of people with disabilities at work: A literature review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 23(4), 463-475.
 Sanchez-Gordon, S., MejÃa, M. & LujÃ¡n-Mora, S. (2017). Model for adjusting workplaces for employees with visual and hearing disabilities. Paper presented at the 2017 4th International Conference on eDemocracy and eGovernment, ICEDEG 2017.
 Schur, L. A. (2003). Barriers or opportunities? The causes of contingent and part-time work among people with disabilities. Industrial Relations, 42(4), 589-622.
 Presser, H. B. & Altman, B. (2002). Work shifts and disability: a national view. Monthly Lab. Rev., 125, 11.
 Fogg, N. P., Harrington, P. E. & McMahon, B. T. (2011). The underemployment of persons with disabilities during the Great Recession. The Rehabilitation Professional, 19(1), 3-10.
 Kaye, H. S. (2010). The impact of the 2007â€“09 recession on workers with disabilities. Monthly Labor Review, 133(10), 19-30.
 Markel, K. S. & Barclay, L. A. (2009). Addressing the underemployment of persons with disabilities: Recommendations for expanding organizational social responsibility. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 21(4), 305-318.
 Garbat, M. (2013). European policy models of employment of people with disabilities. Journal of Social Research and Policy, 4(1), 47-63.
 Nazarov, Z., Kang, D. & von Schrader, S. (2015). Employment quota system and labour market outcomes of individuals with disabilities: Empirical evidence from South Korea. Fiscal Studies, 36(1), 99-126.
 Kulkarni, M. & Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (2011). Socialization of people with disabilities in the workplace. Human Resource Management, 50(4), 521-540.
 Jans, L. H., Stephen Kaye, H. & Jones, E. C. (2012). Getting hired: Successfully employed people with disabilities offer advice on disclosure, interviewing, and job search. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 22(2), 155-165.