Manufacturing and analysis of carbon fiber knee ankle foot orthosis

 
 
 
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract


    Knee ankle foot orthoses (KAFOs) are used by paraplegia patients with low level spinal cord injury and having well control of the stem muscles. Four layers of carbon fiber with C- orthocryl lamination resin are used for manufacturing the knee ankle foot orthoses in this work. The mechanical properties of most of the components materials were estimated with the aid of fatigue and tensile test machines. Results of the tensile tests showed that the mechanical properties: yield stress, ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity were 92MPa, 105.7MPa and 2GPa respectively. The value of amidst pressure between the patient limb and the manufactured KAFO was measured using (F-socket) Mat scan sensor and these values of pressure were (663kPa) and (316kPa) for the thigh and calf regions respectively.

     


  • Keywords


    KAFO; Carbon Fiber; Tensile Test and Interface Pressure

  • References


      [1] Louise Baxter & Stephen Peebles ‘Patient information about knee ankle foot Orthoses’ Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2009.

      [2] W. Robert and M. Leslvie ‘A physiologic rationale for orthotic prescriptionin paraplegia’ Clin. Prosthet. Orthot. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 66–73, 1987.

      [3] E. A. Hurley ‘Use of KAFOs for patients with cerebral vascular accident,traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury’ J. Prosthet. Orthot. Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 199–201, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008526-200606001-00009.

      [4] M. K. Taylor ‘KAFOs for patients with neuromuscular deficiencies’ J. Prosthet. Orthot. Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 202–203, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008526-200606001-00010.

      [5] J. E. Earl, S. J. Piazza, and J. Hertel ‘The protonics knee brace unloadsthe quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects’ J. Athletic Train., vol. 39,no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2004.

      [6] C. Slemenda, K. Brandt, D. Heilman, S. Mazzuca, E. Braunstein, B.Katz, and F.Wolinsky ‘Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of theknee’ Ann. Internal Med., vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 1997. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-127-2-199707150-00001.

      [7] J. B. Redford, J. V. Basmajian, and P. Trautman ‘Orthotics: Clinical Practice and Rehabilitation Technology’ New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995.

      [8] S. Irby, K. Bernhardt, and K. Kaufman ‘Gait of stance control orthosisusers: The dynamic knee brace system’ Prosthet. Orthot. Int., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 269–282, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1080/03093640500238915.

      [9] S. Irby, K. Bernhardt, and K. Kaufman ‘Gait changes over time instance control orthosis users’ Prosthet. Orthot. Int., vol. 31, no. 4, pp.353–361, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1080/03093640601076909.

      [10] B. Zacharias and A. Kannenberg ‘Clinical benefits of stance controlorthosis systems: An analysis of the scientific literature’ J. Prosthet.Orthot., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 2–7, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1097/JPO.0b013e3182435db3.

      [11] T. Yakimovich, E. Lemaire, and J. Kofman ‘Engineering design reviewof stance-control knee-ankle-foot orthoses’ J. Rehabil. Res. Develop.,vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 257–267, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2008.02.0024.

      [12] R.Waters, J. Campbell, L. Thomas, L. Hugos, and P. Davis ‘Energycosts of walking in lower-extremity plaster casts’ J. Bone Joint Surg.Am., vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 896–899, 1982. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-198264060-00013.

      [13] S. Hwang, S. Kang, K. Cho, and Y. Kim ‘Biomechanical effect of electromechanical knee-ankle-foot- orthosis on knee joint control in patients with poliomyelitis’ Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., vol. 46, no. 6, pp.541–549, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-008-0310-6.

      [14] B. Phillips and H. Zhao ‘Predictors of assistive technology abandonment’ Assist. Technol., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400435.1993.10132205.

      [15] K. R. Kaufman, S. E. Irby, J. W. Mathewson, R. W. Wirta, and D. H. Sutherland ‘Energy-efficient knee-ankle-foot orthosis: A case study’ J. Prosthet. Orthot. vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 79–85, 1996.

      [16] Nadire Berker & Selim Yalcin, “The Help Guide to Cerebral Palsy’ SecondEdition. Merrill Corporation’ Washington, 2010, pp: 49.

      [17] Muhsin J. Jweeg, Ali S. Hammood, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Mechanical Properties for Reinforcement Fiber Types of Composite Materials’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 12, No. 04, 2012.

      [18] Muhsin J. Jweeg, Ali S. Hammood, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘A Suggested Analytical Solution of Isotropic Composite Plate with Crack Effect’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 12, No. 05, 2012.

      [19] Mohsin Abdullah Al-Shammari, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘Theoretical and Numerical Vibration Investigation Study of Orthotropic Hyper Composite Plate Structure’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 14, No. 06, 2014.

      [20] Ameer A. Kadhim, Muhannad Al-Waily, Zaman Abud Almalik Abud Ali, Muhsin J. Jweeg, Kadhim K. Resan ‘Improvement Fatigue Life and Strength of Isotropic Hyper Composite Materials by Reinforcement with Different Powder Materials’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 18, No. 02, 2018.

      [21] Mohsin Abdullah Al-Shammari, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘Analytical Investigation of Buckling Behavior of Honeycombs Sandwich Combined Plate Structure’ International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD), Vol. 08, No. 04, pp. 771-786, 2018.

      [22] Muhsin J. Jweeg, Sameer Hashim Ameen ‘Experimental and theoretical investigations of dorsiflexion angle and life of an ankle-Foot-Orthosis made from (Perlon-carbon fibre-acrylic) and polypropylene materials’ 10th IMEKO TC15 Youth Symposium on Experimental Solid Mechanics, 2011.

      [23] Saif M. Abbas, Ayad M. Takhakh, Mohsin Abdullah Al-Shammari, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘Manufacturing and Analysis of Ankle Disarticulation Prosthetic Socket (SYMES)’ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), Vol. 09, No. 07, pp. 560-569, 2018.

      [24] Luay S. Al-Ansari, Muhannad Al-Waily, Ali M. H. Yusif ‘Vibration Analysis of Hyper Composite Material Beam Utilizing Shear Deformation and Rotary Inertia Effects’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 12, No. 04, 2012.

      [25] Ahmed M. Hashim, E. K. Tanner, Jawad K. Oleiwi ‘Biomechanics of Natural Fiber Green Composites as Internal Bone Plate Rafted’ MATEC Web of Conferences, 2016.

      [26] Muhannad Al-Waily, Alaa Abdulzahra Deli, Aziz Darweesh Al-Mawash, Zaman Abud Almalik Abud Ali ‘Effect of Natural Sisal Fiber Reinforcement on the Composite Plate Buckling Behavior’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, No. 01, 2017.

      [27] Muhsin J. Jweeg, Muhannad Al-Waily, Alaa Abdulzahra Deli ‘Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of Buckling of Orthotropic Hyper Composite Plates’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 15, No. 04, 2015.

      [28] Muhannad Al-Waily, Zaman Abud Almalik Abud Ali ‘A Suggested Analytical Solution of Powder Reinforcement Effect on Buckling Load for Isotropic Mat and Short Hyper Composite Materials Plate’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 15, No. 04, 2015.

      [29] Abdulkareem Abdulrazzaq Alhumdany, Muhannad Al-Waily, Mohammed Hussein Kadhim Al-Jabery ‘Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Using Date Palm Nuts Powder into Mechanical Properties and Fundamental Natural Frequencies of Hyper Composite Plate’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 16, No. 01, 2016.

      [30] Muhannad Al-Waily, Kadhim K. Resan, Ali Hammoudi Al-Wazir, Zaman Abud Almalik Abud Ali ‘Influences of Glass and Carbon Powder Reinforcement on the Vibration Response and Characterization of an Isotropic Hyper Composite Materials Plate Structure’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, No. 06, 2017.

      [31] Muhsin J. Jweeg, Kadhim K. Resan, Mustafa Tariq Ismail ‘Study of Creep-Fatigue Interaction in a Prosthetic Socket below Knee’ ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2012.

      [32] Bashar A. Bedaiwi, Jumaa S. Chiad ‘Vibration Analysis and Measurement in the Below Knee Prosthetic Limb: Part I-Experimental Work’ ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 2012.

      [33] Ayad M. Takhakh, Fahad M. Kadhim, Jumaa S. Chiad ‘Vibration Analysis and Measurement in Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis for Both Metal and Plastic KAFO Type’ ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition IMECE2013, November 15-21, San Diego, California, USA, 2013.

      [34] Jumaa S. Chiad ‘Study the impact behavior of the prosthetic lower limb lamination materials due to low velocity impactor’ ASME 2014 12th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA, 2014.

      [35] Muhsin J. Jweeg, A. A. Alhumandy, H. A. Hamzah ‘Material Characterization and Stress Analysis of Openings in Syme’s Prosthetics’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, No. 04, 2017.

      [36] Zainab Yousif Hussien, Kadhim Kamil Resan ‘Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation with and without Heat, on the Fatigue Behavior of Below-Knee Prosthetic Sockets’ International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD), Vol. 07 , No. 06, 2017.

      [37] Mohsin Abdullah Al-Shammari, Emad Q. Hussein, Ameer Alaa Oleiwi ‘Material Characterization and Stress Analysis of a Through Knee Prosthsis Sockets’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, No. 06, 2017.

      [38] Ayad M. Takhakh ‘Manufacturing and Analysis of Partial Foot Prosthetic for The Pirogoff Amputation’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 18, No. 03, pp. 62-68, 2018.

      [39] Jawad K. Oleiwi, Ahmed Namah Hadi ‘Experimental and numerical investigation of lower limb prosthetic foot made from composite polymer blends’ International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, Vol. 08, No. 02, pp. 1319-1330, 2018. https://doi.org/10.24247/ijmperdapr2018151.

      [40] Mahmud Rasheed Ismail, Muhannad Al-Waily, Ameer A. Kadhim ‘Biomechanical Analysis and Gait Assessment for Normal and Braced Legs’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 18, No. 03, 2018.

      [41] Muhsin J. Jweeg ‘Application of finite element analysis to rotating fan impellers’ Doctoral Thesis, Aston University, 1983.

      [42] Ayad M. Takhakh, Raied Z. Alfay, Abdul Rahim K. Abid Ali ‘Effect of Ta addition on hardness and wear resist of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy fabricated by powder metallurgy’ BEIAC 2013-2013 IEEE Business Engineering and Industrial Applications Colloquium, 2013.

      [43] Muhannad Al-Waily, Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Rasha Hayder Al-Khayat ‘Flow Velocity and Crack Angle Effect on Vibration and Flow Characterization for Pipe Induce Vibration’ International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, No. 05, pp.19-27, 2017.

      [44] Muhsin J. Jweeg, E. Q. Hussein, K. I. Mohammed ‘Effects of Cracks on the Frequency Response of a Simply Supported Pipe Conveying Fluid’ International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 17, 05, 2017.

      [45] Mohsin Abdullah Al-Shammari, Lutfi Y. Zedan, Akram M. Al-Shammari ‘FE simulation of multi-stage cold forging process for metal shell of spark plug manufacturing’ 1st International Scientific Conference of Engineering Sciences-3rd Scientific Conference of Engineering Science, ISCES 2018–Proceedings, 2018.

      [46] Rasha Hayder Al-Khayat, Maher A. R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Ragad Aziz Neama, Muhannad Al-Waily ‘Optimization CFD Study of Erosion in 3D Elbow During Transportation of Crude Oil Contaminated with Sand Particles, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 07, No. 03, pp. 1420-1428, 2018. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.14180.

      [47] Abeer R. Abbas, Kadhim A. Hebeatir, Kadhim K. Resan ‘Effect of CO2 Laser on Some Properties of NI46TI50CU4 Shape Memory Alloy’ International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, Vol. 08, No. 02, pp. 451-460, 2018. https://doi.org/10.24247/ijmperdapr201852.

      [48] Ghaith G. Hameed, Muhsin J. Jweeg, Ali Hussein ‘Springback and side wall curl of metal sheet in plain strain deep drawing’ Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 04, No. 05, pp. 192-201, 2009.

      [49] Adnan S. Jabur, Jalal M. Jalil, Ayad M. Takhakh ‘Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Al-Si Casting Microstructure Formation’ Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 03, pp. 777-792, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0189-2.

      [50] Maier C, & Calafut T. ‘Polypropylene – the definitive user’s guide and databook’ In: Woishnis, W. (Eds.), Plastics Design Library a Division of William Andrew Inc. New York; 1998.

      [51] Kadhim K. Resan, Abbas A. Alasadi, Muhannad Al-Waily, Muhsin J. Jweeg ‘Influence of Temperature on Fatigue Life for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy Materials, International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS, Vol. 18, No. 02, 2018.

      [52] R.A. Flinn and Trojan PK ‘Engineering Materials and Their Application’ 4 thed Bostan, Houghton Mifflin, 1990.


 

View

Download

Article ID: 17315
 
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.17315




Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.