Evaluation of Microfine Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) as Cement Partial Replacement Material for Mitigation of Chloride Attack


  • Raudhah Ahmadi
  • Mohd Syukry Saiful
  • Dzul Fahmi Zawawi
  • Shahrul Zaman Abdul Rahman
  • Idawati Ismail
  • Mohamad Abdul Mannan
  • Ana Sakura Zainal Abidin
  • Fadzli Mohamed Nazri






Cement replacement, Chloride attack, Microfine POFA.


This paper investigates the effect of microfine palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as cement replacement material for mitigation of chloride attack in concrete. The raw POFA obtained from a local palm oil mill is initially grinded using Los Angeles abrasion machine, and then sieved using 150 μm sieve before it is burned in a furnace at 500°C. The burned POFA is then grinded using electric powder grinder to obtain the targeted microfine size ranging between 1-10 μm. Treated microfine POFA is used in the production of concrete samples for experimental tests; compressive strength test, sorptivity test and chloride penetration test to determine its physical properties and the chloride resistance parameter for the mitigation of chloride attack in concrete. Results showed that 20% of microfine POFA replacement in concrete gives the highest compressive strength at 56th day and reduces the rate of absorption of water and chloride penetration.




[1] Budiea A., Hussin, M. W., Muthusamy, K., & Ismail, M. E. (2012). Performance of High Strength POFA Concrete in Acidic Environment, (March 2010), 14–18.

[2] Kroehong, W., Sinsiri, T., & Jaturapitakkul, C. (2011). Effect of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Fineness on Packing Effect and Pozzolanic Reaction of Blended Cement Paste. Procedia Engineering, 14, 361–369.

[3] Johari, M. A. M., Zeyad, A. M., Yusuf, M. O. (2014). Improving the Engineering and Fluid Transport Properties of Ultra-High Strength Concrete Utilizing Ultrafine Palm Oil Fuel Ash. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology. 12, 127-137.

[4] Nordtest Method: NT Build 492 (1999). Concrete, Mortar and Cement-Based Repair Materials: Chloride Migration Coefficient From Non-Steady-State Migration Experiments.

[5] Ahmadi, R., Zainudin, N., Ismail, I., Mannan, M.A. & Abidin, A.S.Z. (2016). Micro fine sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) produced using a wind tunnel production system. Journal of Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 2016, Article ID 6792731

[6] Ahmadi, R., Saiful, S., Zawawi, D.F., Rahman, S.Z.A., Ismail, I., Mannan, A.B., & Abidin, A.S.Z. (2017). Production and Characterization of Microfine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) Originated from Bau, Lundu Palm Oil Mill. Proceedings MATEC Web Of Conferences, Volume 87

[7] Muthusamy, K., & Azzimah, Z. N. (2014). Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, 8(2), 150–152.

[8] Kajaste, R., & Hurme, M. (2015). Cement industry greenhouse gas emissions– management options and abatement cost. Journal of Cleaner Production.

[9] Zych, T. (2014). Test methods of Concrete Resistance to Chloride Ingress. Technical Transaction: Civil Engineering, 6(6), 118-139.

[10] Ahmad M. H., Omar R. C., Malek M. A., Nor M. N. & Thiruselvam S. (2008). Compressive Strength of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Concrete. In proceedings of the International Journal of Scientific & Technolgy Research (pp. 297-306).

View Full Article:

How to Cite

Ahmadi, R., Syukry Saiful, M., Fahmi Zawawi, D., Zaman Abdul Rahman, S., Ismail, I., Abdul Mannan, M., Sakura Zainal Abidin, A., & Mohamed Nazri, F. (2018). Evaluation of Microfine Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) as Cement Partial Replacement Material for Mitigation of Chloride Attack. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(3.18), 58–61. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.18.16674
Received 2018-08-01
Accepted 2018-08-01
Published 2018-08-02