Cochran’s Q with Pairwise McNemar for Dichotomous Multiple Responses Data: a Practical Approach


  • Donald Stephen
  • Shahren Ahmad Zaidi Adruce





Cochran’s Q, dichotomous multiple responses data, McNemar, Multiple Responses Analysis, proportion


When utilizing single-response questions for a survey, researchers often overlook the possibility that an item can have a smorgasbord of viable answers. It results in the loss of information as it forces the respondents to select a best-of-fit option. A multiple-responses question allows the respondent to select any number of answers from a set of preformatted options. The ability to capture a flexible number of responses allows collectively exhaustive concepts to manifest for deductive verification. This paper explores the practical use of Cochran’s Q test and pairwise McNemar test to examine the proportion of responses derived from the results of Multiple Responses Analysis (MRA). This includes Cochran’s Q operation on MRA data table using a simulated data set. Cochran’s Q test detects if there is a difference in the proportion of multiple concepts. In the case of a significant result, it would require a post hoc analysis to pinpoint the exact difference in pairwise proportions. This pairwise difference can be detected by utilizing pairwise McNemar test with Bonferroni Correction. This paper serves as a reference for researchers and practitioners who need to examine the proportion of collectively exhaustive concepts collected from a multiple responses item.




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How to Cite

Stephen, D., & Ahmad Zaidi Adruce, S. (2018). Cochran’s Q with Pairwise McNemar for Dichotomous Multiple Responses Data: a Practical Approach. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(3.18), 4–6.
Received 2018-08-01
Accepted 2018-08-01
Published 2018-08-02