Ecological Urbanism in the Tropics Studies on the Sustainable Dimensions of Malay Traditional Urban Centers
Keywords:sustainable urban form, tropical urbanism, green cities, topicality, Malay cities, tropical architecture, traditional urban morphology.
Many of the present eco-cities are designed and planned with an emphasis on high technology and infrastructure yet the meaning of sustainability itself implies a balance between past and present. Past urban configurations that rise from earlier traditional socio-cultural structures reflect sustainable principles localised to climate and ecology. The aim of this study is to reconstruct urban morphologies be-fore the advent of the automobile in order to analyse and characterise urban forms that are aligned with ecological criteria such as walk-ability, permeability and shade. Three traditional urban center or â€˜coresâ€™ in tropical Malaysia which had reigned during the early colo-nial era yet still related sultanate-based polities are mapped in terms of morphologies and these urban â€˜coreâ€™ configurations were esti-mated and composed according to historical documents and evidences . These urban patterns are then discussed with regards to the present principles and criteria of green urbanism. The reconstructed and mapped urban cores are discussed in relation to green urban-ism principles and criteria, namely, based on global sustainable standards namely the LEED ND (Leadership in Energy and Environ-mental Design) version 4 neighbourhood rating system. The findings from this study suggest the contextualization of sustainable criteria according to climate and postulate the differences between traditional urban morphologies that can further regionalism principles of current green urbanism and further contextualise key principles in international standards on urbanism.
 Brown, M. G. (1999). Charter of the New Urbanism, Congress of the New Urbanism, Edited by Michael Leccese and Kathleen McCormick, McGraw-Hill, 180 pages.
 Samsuddin, N. (2014). The Physical Design Atrributes of Tra-ditional Malay Kampung in Kampung Tanjung Bunut, Kuala Terengnnau, IGCESH2014, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jo-hor Bahru, Malaysia 19-21 August 2014
 Kusno, (2010). The Appearances of Memory: Mnemonic Prac-tices of Architecture and Urban Form in Indonesia, Duke Uni-versity Press, 4 Feb 2010
 Brown, C. (1976), Sejarah Melayu, The Malay Annals, Oup, Hong Kong 1976, p. 151.  Nor Zalina, H. and Ismail, S. (2008). Role and Fate of Padang in Malaysian Historical Cities. Proceedings of the 5th GreAsian Street Symposium. 5-7 December. National University of Singapore, Sin-gapore.  Noor Fazamimah, M.A. (2007). Role of Cultural Landscape in Im-proving the Identity of the Kuala Terengganu Town Centre as a Malay Historic Town. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Built Environment.  Wan Mohd Zakri, W.A. (2008). Appropriate Urban Public Open Space. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Johor: Universiti Teknologi Ma-laysia.  Hagan, Susannah.(2014),Ecological Urbanism and the Nature of the city, Routledge, London.
 Evers, H. and Korff, R. (2000). Southeast Asian Urbanism: The Meaning of Power and Social Space. Munster: LIT Verlag.
 Amoroso, D. (2014). Traditionalism and Ascendency of the Malay ruling class in Colonial Malaya (Singapore: National University of Singapore Press).
 LEED v4 Edition (2014). LEED Reference Guide for Neighbor-hood Development, U.S. Green Building Council;
 Harry Benda and John Larkin (eds.), The World of S. East Asia, Selected Historical Readings, Harper and Row Limited, N. York, 1967, p. 16.
 Sir Carnac Temple, The Itenary of LudocivoVarthema of Bologna from 1502 to 1506, The Arganout Press, London, 1928, p.84.
 Alexander, Christopher Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, 1977, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford Uni-versity Press.
 Carmona, Mathew, 2010, Public Places, Urban spaces- the Di-mensions of Urban Design, Routledge.
View Full Article:
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).