Modelling and optimizing of electronic toll collection (ETC) at Malaysian toll plazas using microsimulation models


  • A E. Jehad Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
  • A Ismail Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
  • M N. Borhan
  • S Z. Ishak Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia





Safety, Toll Plaza, Microsimulation, VISSIM, SSAM, Traffic Management


Toll plazas are one of the critical components of a roadway system. At the same time, they are among the most complex road structures, as drivers are exposed to a large amount of information and have a short amount of time to make a decision to avoid any collision. VISSIM and SSAM are used to investigate the effect of various Malaysian toll plazas design and traffic conditions on drivers’ behaviour and level of safety. The study was made a well-calibrated and validated VISSIM simulation model and several scenarios were simulated to test their efficacy for improving toll plaza safety aspects by using SSAM afterwards. From the results it was observed that the VISSIM simulation model scenarios such as implementing booths orientation and segregating lanes for different vehicle types to improve the level of service have significant safety aspects improvement regarding conflict points and lane change accidents results while using Surrogate Safety As-sessment Model (SSAM) in order to give the need for remediation of either the roadway design or the flow-control strategy.




[1] A. A. Mohamed, M. Abdel-Aty, and J. G. Klodzinski, “Safety considerations in designing electronic toll plazas: Case study,†ITE J., vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 20–33, 2001.

[2] M. Abuzwidah and M. Abdel-Aty, “Safety assessment of the conversion of toll plazas to all-electronic toll collection system,†Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 80, pp. 153–161, 2015.

[3] S. P. Edison, M. Kirubahar, R. Nandhakumar, and T. K. Naveenraj, “Electronic Toll Collection Using Portable RFID TAG with Antitheft System,†2015.

[4] S. Vats, G. Vats, R. Vaish, and V. Kumar, “Selection of optimal electronic toll collection system for India: A subjective-fuzzy decision making approach,†Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 21, pp. 444–452, 2014.

[5] R. Abdulla, A. Abdillahi, and M. K. Abbas, “Electronic Toll Collection System based on Radio Frequency Identification System.,†Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 8, no. 3, 2018.

[6] E. C.-P. Chang, M.-F. Wu, and Y. C. Chang, “Successful Taiwan freeway electronic toll collection (ETC) implementation through intelligent transport system (ITS),†in Bridging the East and West, 2016, pp. 86–92.

[7] C. Liu and W. Wang, “Optimal Allocation of Electronical Toll Collection and Manual Toll Collection Gates in Highway Networks 澔 澔,†2018.

[8] M. S. Bains, S. Arkatkar, K. Anbumani, and S. Subramaniam, “Optimizing/Modelling Toll Way Operation Using Micro Simulation: Case Study Sanand Toll Plaza, Ahmedabad, Gujrat, India,†96th Tranportation Annu. Meet. no. 2615, pp. 43–54, 2017.

[9] G. R. Brow, “Traffic conflicts for road user safety studies,†Can. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.

[10] H.-C. Chin and S.-T. Quek, “Measurement of traffic conflicts,†Saf. Sci., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 169–185, 1997.

[11] J. Archer, “Traffic conflict technique: Historical to current state-of-the-art,†Publ. CTR2001, vol. 5, 2001.

[12] PTV, PTV VISSIM 9 User Manual. Karlsruhe, Germany: PTV AG, 2016.

[13] R. Herman, Theory of traffic flow. Elsevier Publishing Company, 1961.

[14] V. Astarita, M. Florian, and G. Musolino, “A microscopic traffic simulation model for the evaluation of toll station systems,†in Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE, 2001, pp. 692–697.

[15] A. H. A. Hamid, “Simulation of Traffic Operation and Management at Malaysian Toll Plazas using VISSIM,†Res. Gate, Penang, 2011.

View Full Article: