The Impact of Hofstede’s National Culture on Usage of Emails Among Academician in Malaysian Public Universities


  • Anuar Shah Bali Mahomed
  • Michael G. Mcgrath
  • Bong Zhi Yuh





Power Distance (PD), Uncertainty Avoidance (UA), Collectivism (C), Masculinity (M), Long-Term Orientation (LT), indulgence (I), Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU), Perceived Usefulness (PU)


This research investigates the impact of Hoftstede’s National Culture which mediated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on usage of emails among academician in Malaysian public universities. Data was collected by using survey questionnaires among 146 academic staff from two public universities in Malaysia. Path analysis was conducted using SmartPLS 2.0 to assess the usage of emails model. Study found that power distance (PD), uncertainty avoidance (UA) and collectivism (C) have negative impact on perceived ease of use (PEOU) of usage of emails. Study further discovered that PD, and C have negative influence on perceived usefulness (PU) of usage of emails. In addition, study found that masculinity (M) has no noteworthy impact on both PEOU and PU of usage of emails. Moreover, long-term orientation (LT) and Indulgence (I) were found to have noteworthy positive relationship with PEOU and PU on usage of emails. On technology acceptance model (TAM), PEOU and PU were found to have noteworthy positive impact on usage of emails (U) while PEOU has a noteworthy positive impact PU of usage of emails. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for future academic research and practice.



[1] EMP. Eight Malaysia Plan 2001–2005. Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan; 2001.

[2] Mohamad WMW, Hashim NH, editors. The effectiveness of email use by Malaysia government ministries'. International Conference on Business and Economic Research (ICBER 2010) Malaysia, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia; 2010.

[3] ILS. Internet Live Stats, Malaysia Internet Users 2016 [Available from:

[4] Husain K, Abdullah AN, Hashim R, Husin N. EFFECT OF E-MAIL USE ON OTHER COMMUNICATION. Journal of Human Capital Development (JHCD). 2009;2(2):87-110.

[5] Mahomed ASB, McGrath MG, Yuh BZ. The Role of National Culture on Email Usage among Non-Academic Staff in Malaysian Public Universities. International Journal of Economics & Management. 2017;11(1).

[6] Chui M, Manyika J, Bughin J, Dobbs R, Roxburgh C, Sarrazin H, et al. The social economy: Unlocking value and productivity through social technologies. McKinsey Global Institute. 2012;4:35-58.

[7] 7. Eunson B. Communication in the Workplace: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.

[8] Jackson LA, Ervin KS, Gardner PD, Schmitt N. Gender and the Internet: Women communicating and men searching. Sex roles. 2001;44(5-6):363-79.

[9] Silverstone B. The growth and development of email and its effectiveness as a means of communication. A case study of staff at Pembrokeshire College: MSc Dissertation, University of Glamorgan, UK; 2010.

[10] Mahomed B, Shah A. Examining email usage among non-academic staff in public and private Malaysian Universities: Victoria University; 2015.

[11] 11. Dawam SRM, Ahmad KA, Jusoff K, Tajuddian T, Elias SJ, Mansor SW. The use of ICT in public and private institutions of higher learning, Malaysia. Computer and Information Science. 2009;2(4):122.

[12] Davis FD. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly. 1989:319-40.

[13] Shah GUD, Bhatti MN, Iftikhar M, Qureshi MI, Zaman K. Implementation of technology acceptance model in e-learning environment in rural and urban areas of Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013;27(11):1495-507.

[14] Jamil F, Ismail K, Mahmood N, Khan NU, Siddique M. Technology incubators and institutional development. Journal Teknologi. 2015;12:133-9.

[15] Teo T, Wong SL, Chai CS. A cross-cultural examination of the intention to use technology between Singaporean and Malaysian pre-service teachers: an application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2008;11(4):265.

[16] Adams DA, Nelson RR, Todd PA. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, and usage of information technology: A replication. MIS quarterly. 1992:227-47.

[17] Hong S, Thong JY, Tam KY. Understanding continued information technology usage behavior: A comparison of three models in the context of mobile internet. Decision support systems. 2006;42(3):1819-34.

[18] Ducheneaut NB. The social impacts of electronic mail in organizations: a case study of electronic power games using communication genres. Information, Communication & Society. 2002;5(2):153-88.

[19] Straub DW. The Effect of Culture on IT Diffusion: E-Mail and FAX in Japan and the US. Information Systems Research. 1994;5(1):23-47.

[20] Al-Gahtani SS, Hubona GS, Wang J. Information technology (IT) in Saudi Arabia: Culture and the acceptance and use of IT. Information & Management. 2007;44(8):681-91.

[21] Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ, Minkov M, Vinken H. Values survey module 2008 manual. Maastricht: Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation. 2008.

[22] Hofstede G. Management in a multicultural society. Malaysian management review. 1991;26(1):3-12.

[23] Zaman K, Qureshi M, Bhatti M. The impact of culture and gender on leadership behavior: Higher education and management. Management Science Letters. 2011;1(4):531-40.

[24] Minkov M. What makes us different and similar: a new interpretation of the world values and other cross-cultural data: na; 2007.

[25] Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ, Minkov M. Cultures and organizations: software for the mind. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2010.

[26] Erez M, Earley PC. Comparative analysis of goal-setting strategies across cultures. Journal of applied psychology. 1987;72(4):658.

[27] HUANG L. The impact of cultural values on email acceptance: Evidence from the PRC. 2003.

[28] Al-Sukkar AS. The application of information systems in the Jordanian banking sector: a study of the acceptance of the internet. 2005.

[29] Hart M, Porter G. The impact of cognitive and other factors on the perceived usefulness of OLAP. Journal of Computer Information Systems. 2004;45(1):47-56.

[30] Hung VQ. Applying Technology Acceptance Model in Evaluating the Usage of MISA Accounting Software at SMEs-Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam. 樹德科技大學資訊管ç†ç³»ç¢©å£«ç­å­¸ä½è«–æ–‡. 2011:1-102.

[31] 3Hair J, Black W, Babin B, Anderson R. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective: Pearson Prentice Hall. USA; 2010.

[32] 3Reinartz W, Haenlein M, Henseler J. An empirical comparison of the efficacy of covariance-based and variance-based SEM. International Journal of research in Marketing. 2009;26(4):332-44.

[33] Fornell C, Larcker DF. Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research. 1981:382-8.

[34] Mutlu S, Ergeneli A. Electronic mail acceptance evaluation by entended technology acceptance model and moderation effects of espoused national cultural values beween subjective norm and usage intention. Intellectual economics. 2012;6(2):7-28.

[35] Mutlu S, Ergeneli A. Electronic mail acceptance evaluation by extended technology acceptance model and moderation effects of espoused national cultural values between subjective norm and usage intention. Intelektine Ekonomika. 2012;6(2).

[36] Alhujran O. Determinants of e-government services adoption in developing countries: a field survey and a case study [PhD]: University of Wollongong, Australia; 2009.

[37] Amani-Saribagloo J, Gholamali-Lavasani M. وجشناد رد ي نا The relationship between cultural values and individual variables with computer use among university students. Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2011;5(1):1-10.

[38] Ramayah T. The role of voluntariness in distance education students' usage of a course website. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 2010;9(3).

View Full Article: