Radiation Awareness among Secondary School Students in Perak, Malaysia

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Currently, the number of student enrolment for Radiography programme in Universiti Kuala Lumpur – Royal College of Medicine Perak is the lowest compared to other programmes. Hence, this study is done to determine students’ tendency to further their study in radiography or related programme and determine the radiation awareness among the secondary school students. A survey was conducted on n=429 form four secondary school students under national standard curriculum. 75.5% of the data were collected from seven government secondary schools in Perak, while the remaining were collected from visitors of our institution. The result shows the average score of basic knowledge regarding radiation with mean score of 59.53% and standard deviation of 18.89%. Meanwhile, printed reading materials is the highest type of information source and video game is the lowest with 25.9% and 0.2% respectively. 46.2% claimed that they are fear to radiation and all of them agreed that the radiation disaster incidences was their main reason. 92.3% claimed that they will seek for their parents’ opinion and 17.5% claimed to follow their parents’ choice with regard to the choice of future career while 50.8% claimed that they may continue their higher education in radiography or related programme. Result also showed that fear to radiation effects the students’ tendency to choose radiography or related programme as their choice [p<0.05]. It can be concluded that the radiation awareness among secondary school students in this study is assumed as average and the tendency to further study in radiography or related programme is quite low mainly due to their fear to radiation disaster incidence.



  • Keywords

    Radiation Awareness; Student’s awareness; Radiation Fear; Radiation Perception

  • References

    1. [1] Malaysian Qualification Agency. Programme Standards: Medical and Health Science. Petaling Jaya, Selangor: Malaysian Qualification Agency; 2016.

      [2] Kelsey CA, Heintz PH, Sandoval DJ, Chambers GD, Adolphi NL, Paffett KS. Radiation Biology of Medical Imaging. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.

      [3] Bushong SC. Radiologic Science for Technologists: Physics, Biology, and Protection. 10th ed. Missouri, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013.

      [4] Holmes K, Elkington M, Harris P. Clark's Essential Physics in Imaging for Radiographers. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group.; 2014.

      [5] Ahmed SN. Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection. Burlington, USA: Elsevier; 2007.

      [6] UNSCEAR. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation New York: UNSCEAR, 2010.

      [7] Johnson R. Annual Meeting of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing: Understanding the Basis for Radiation Fears. Las Vegas: American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 2013.

      [8] Jimonet C, Massiot P. European Radiation Protection Course : Basics. Ulis, France: EDP SCIENCES; 2014.

      [9] National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionising Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States: NCRP Report No. 160. USA: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 2008.

      [10] Sanusi MSM, Ramli AT, Gabdo HT, Garba NN, Heryanshah A, Wagiran H, et al. Isodose Mapping of Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Dose Rate of Selangor State, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2014;135:67-74.

      [11] Asaduzzaman K, Khandaker MU, Amin YM, Bradley DA, Mahat RH, Nor RM. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y in Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2014;135:120-7.

      [12] Asaduzzaman K, Khandaker MU, Amin YM, Mahat R. Uptake and Distribution of Natural Radioactivity in Rice from Soil in North and West Part of Peninsular Malaysia for the Estimation of Ingestion Dose to Man. Annals of Nuclear Energy. 2015;76:85-93.

      [13] Gorur FK, Camgoz H. Natural Radioactivity in Various Water Samples and Radiation Dose Estimations in Bolu Province, Turkey. Chemosphere. 2014;112:134-40.

      [14] Sharma N, Singh J, Esakki SC, Tripathi RM. A Study of the Natural Radioactivity and Radon Exhalation Rate in Some Cements Used in India and Its Radiological Significance Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 2016;9:47-56.

      [15] Yun S-H, Koo H-N, Kim HK, Yang J-O, Kim G-H. X-ray Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment for the Control of Six Insect Pests in Cut Flower Boxes. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2016;19[1]:31-8.

      [16] International Atomic Energy Agency. Food irradiation Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 2017 [5 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.iaea.org/topics/food-irradiation.

      [17] Kume T, Todoriki S. Food Irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States: A Status Updates. Radioisotopes. 2013;62:291-9.

      [18] International Atomic Energy Agency. Power Reactor Information System: The Database on Nuclear Power Reactors Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency; 2017 [5 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.iaea.org/pris/.

      [19] Roth MB, Jaramillo P. Going Nuclear for Climate Mitigation: An Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Preserving Existing U.S. Nuclear Power Plants as a Carbon Avoidance Strategy. Energy. 2017;131:67-77.

      [20] Pavel GL, Budu AR, Moraru DE. Optimization of Energy Mix Nuclear Power and Renewable Energy for Low Emissions Energy Source a Benefit for Generations to Come. Energy Procedia. 2017;112:412 - 7.

      [21] Cardin M-A, Zhang S, Nuttall WJ. Strategic Real Option and Flexibility Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants Considering Uncertainty in Electricity Demand and Public Acceptance. Energy Economics. 2017;64:226-37.

      [22] Lim G-H, Jung W-J, Kim T-H, Lee S-YT. The Cognitive and Economic Value of a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2017;49:609-20.

      [23] Patel MN. Use of Rotational Fluoroscopy and 3-D Reconstruction for Pre-Operative Imaging of Complex Cloacal Malformations. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. 2016;25[2]:96-101.

      [24] Hatt CR, Speidel MA, Raval AN. Real-Time Pose Estimation of Devices from X-Ray Images: Application to X-Ray/Echo Registration for Cardiac Interventions. Medical Image Analysis


      [25] Tsubamoto M, Fujita M, Okada A, Niju T, Ikeda T, Nishida T, et al. Isolated Unilateral Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery: Findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering Imaging of the Pleura. Radiology Case Reports. 2017;12:19-24.

      [26] Crespo-Rodríguez AM, Lucas-Villarrubia JCD, Pastrana-Ledesma M, Hualde-Juvera A, Méndez-Alonso S, Padron M. The diagnostic performance of non-contrast 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging [3-T MRI] versus 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance arthrography [1.5-T MRA] in femoro-acetabular impingement. European Journal of Radiology. 2017;88:109-16.

      [27] Waller ML, Chowdhury FU. The Basic Science of Nuclear Medicine. Orthopaedics and Trauma. 2016;30:201-22.

      [28] Wong KK, Chondrogiannis S, Fuster D, Ruiz C, Marzola MC, Giammarile F, et al. Additional Value of Hybrid SPECT/CT Systems in Neuroendocrine Tumors, Adrenal Tumors, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas. Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular [English Edition]. 2017;36[2]:103-9.

      [29] Healy BJ, Merwe Dvd, Christaki KE, Meghzifene A. Cobalt-60 Machines and Medical Linear Accelerators: Competing Technologies for External Beam Radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology. 2017;29[2]:110-5.

      [30] Tanderup K, Ménard C, Polgar C, Lindegaard JC, Kirisits C, Pötter R. Advancements in Brachytherapy. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2017;109:15-25.

      [31] International Commission on Radiological Protection. About ICRP Ontario, Canada: International Commission on Radiological Protection; 2017 [5 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.icrp.org/index.asp.

      [32] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Aim, Status & History Germany: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2017 [5 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.icnirp.org/en/about-icnirp/aim-status-history/index.html.

      [33] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. About Us Vienna, Austria: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; 2017 [5 May 2017]. Available from: http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/about_us.html.

      [34] Atomic Energy Licensing Board. About AELB Selangor, Malaysia: Atomic Energy Licensing Board; 2016 [5 May 2017]. Available from: http://portal.aelb.gov.my/sites/aelb/en/about-aelb/profile.

      [35] Walsby M. The Printed Book in Brittany, 1484-1600. Leiden: Brill NV; 2011.

      [36] Chun WHK, Keenan T. New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader: Routledge; 2006.

      [37] Zillmann D, Bryant J, Huston AC. Media, Children, and the Family: Social Scientific, Psychodynamic, and Clinical Perspectives: Taylor & Francis; 2013.

      [38] British Broadcasting Corporation. Chernobyl: 20 Years On London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation; 2007 [6 May 2017]. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/europe/2006/chernobyl/.

      [39] Oliphant R. Chernobyl Disaster: On the 30th Anniversary of the Nuclear Accident, Authorities Plan for the Next Century United Kingdom: The Telegraph; 2016 [6 May 2017].

      [40] The Asahi Shimbun. Hiroshima, Nagasaki Release Soviet Footage of A-Bomb Damage Tokyo, Japan: The Asahi Shimbun; 2016 [6 May 2017].

      [41] Rich M. Survivors Recount Horrors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki United States of America: The New York Times; 2016 [6 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/world/asia/survivors-recount-horrors-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki.html?_r=0.

      [42] South China Morning Post. Thirty Children Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer in Fukushima Nuclear Crisis Survey Hong Kong: South China Morning Post; 2016 [6 May 2017].

      [43] Fifield A, Oda Y. Japanese Nuclear Plant Just Recorded an Astronomical Radiation Level. Should We be Worried? United States of America: The Washington Post; 2017 [6 May 2017].

      [44] Fushiki S. Radiation Hazards in Children – Lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima. Brain and Development. 2013;35[3]:220-7.

      [45] Douple EB, Mabuchi K, Cullings HM, Preston DL, Kodama K, Shimizu Y, et al. Long-Term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: A Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5[1]:S122-S33.

      [46] Fujitani K, Carroll M, Yanagisawa R, Katz C. Burnout and Psychiatric Distress in Local Caregivers Two Years After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Radiation Disaster. Community Mental Health Journal. 2016;52[1]:39-45.

      [47] Contis G, Foley TPJ. Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Thyroid Tumors Among Ukrainian Adolescents Exposed as Children to Chernobyl Radiation

      George Contis, Thomas P. Foley, Jr. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2015;7[5]:332-8.

      [48] Bose ASC, Shetty V, Sadiq A, Shani J, Jacobowitz I. Radiation Induced Cardiac Valve Disease in a Man From Chernobyl. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2009;22[8]:973.e1-.e3.

      [49] Kamiya K, Ozasa K, Akiba S, Niwa O, Kodama K, Takamura N, et al. Long-Term Effects of Radiation Exposure on Health. The Lancet. 2015;386[9992]:469-78.

      [50] Yamada M, Izumi S. Psychiatric Sequelae in Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Two Decades After the Explosions. Social Psychiatry Psychiatry Epidemiology. 2002;37[9]:409-15.

      [51] Boonstra PA, van Veen RN. Less Negative Appendectomies Due to Imaging in Patients with Suspected Appendicitis. Surgical Endoscopy. 2015;29[8]:2365-70.

      [52] Zhang Y, Zhou P, Tian S-M, Zhao Y-F, Li J-L, Li L. Usefulness of Combined Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and TI-RADS Classification for the Differentiation of Benign from Malignant Lesions of Thyroid Nodules. European Radiology. 2017;27[4]:1527-36.

      [53] Wu L-R, Liu Y-T, Jiang N, Fan Y-X, Wen J, Huang S-F, et al. Ten-year Survival Outcomes for Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: An Analysis of 614 Patients from a Single Center. Oral Oncology. 2017;69:26-32.

      [54] Walker JS. Permissable Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century. California, United States of America: University of California Press; 2000.

      [55] Sherer MAS, Visconti PJ, Ritenour ER, Haynes K. Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography United States of America: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.

      [56] Martin CJ, Sutton DG. Practicle Radiation Protection In Healthcare. 2nd ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2015.

      [57] Tamam E, Abdullah AN. Malaysian Journalists’ Perceptions on the Role of the Media. The Social Science Journal. 2015;52:46-53.

      [58] Fiser SZ, Misic KU. Trust in Media and Perception of the Role of Media in Society among the Students of the University of Maribor. Public Relations Review. 2015;41:296-8.

      [59] Rookes P, Willson J. Perception: Theory, Development and Organisation. London: Routledge; 2000.

      [60] New Oxford English-English-Malay Dictionary. 2nd ed. Selangor, Malaysia: Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.; 2012.

      [61] Ricketts ML, Baerlocher MO, Asch MR, Myers A. Perception of Radiation Exposure and Risk Among Patients, Medical Students, and Referring Physicians at a Tertiary Care Community Hospital. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. 2013;64:208-12.

      [62] Hollada J, Speier W, Oshiro T, Marzan-McGill R, Ruehm SG, Bassett LW, et al. Patients' Perceptions of Radiation Exposure Associated with Mammography. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2015;205[1]:215-21.

      [63] Nishitani M. Effect of School Education on Students' Perception of Radiation. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;60[11]:1555-63.

      [64] Beauchamp RC. Radiation, Fear, and Common Sense Adaptations in Patient Care. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2016;51[4]:675-95.

      [65] Cohen MD. Understanding the Problem of a Parent’s Fear of Their Child Getting Cancer from CT Scan Radiation. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2016;51[7]:1222–7.

      [66] Hawkins CM, DeLaO AJ, Hung C. Social Media and the Patient Experience Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2016;13 [12, Part B]:1615-21.

      [67] Johnson R. Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Psychological and Mental Health Aspects. Encyclopedia of Environmental Health: Elsevier Publications; 2010. p. 288-96.

      [68] Chong CS, Ng SH. Fizik Tingkatan 5. Abd Latif NA, editor. Selangor, Malaysia: Nijuyon Sdn. Bhd.; 2012.

      [69] Lee CX, Lee BH. Whizz Thru SPM Fizik. Selangor, Malaysia: Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.; 2016.

      [70] Wan Zaid WZ, Ab. Rashid I, Jusoh Z. Sains Tingkatan 4. Ab. Rashid I, editor. Selangor, Malaysia: Synergymate Sdn. Bhd.; 2011.

      [71] Ling P, Lee TS, Ling TS. Whizz Thru SPM Sains. Selangor, Malaysia: Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.; 2016.

      [72] Mat Yusof MRH, Abdullah MN, Soo J. Target Sukses SPM Form 4 & 5: Science. Selangor, Malaysia: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.; 2017.

      [73] Rasselet B, Larbi A, Viala P, Molinari N, Tetreau R, Faruch-Bilfeld M, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of intravertebral enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scans in cancer patients. European Journal of Radiology. 2017;86:1-5.

      [74] Grassner L, Bierschneider M, Strowitzki M, Grillhösl A. Different sequelae of electrical brain injury — MRI patterns. Burns. 2017;43[4]:e7-e10.

      [75] Donovan E, Timotin E, Farrell T, Donde B, Puksa S, Sur R. Endobronchial brachytherapy for metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancies as an effective treatment for palliation of symptoms Brachytherapy. 2017;16[3]:630-8.

      [76] Gagliardi F, Bailo M, Spina A, Donofrio CA, Boari N, Franzin A, et al. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Low-Grade Gliomas: Clinical Results at Long-Term Follow-Up of Tumor Control and Patients' Quality of Life World Neurosurgery. 2017;101:540-53.

      [77] Python JL, Wakefield BW, Kondo KL, Bang TJ, Stamm ER, Hurt KJ. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology. Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women's Cardiovascular Health. 2016;23[6]:997-1002.

      [78] Singer B. House, M.D. United States of America: NBCUniversal Television Distribution; 2004 - 2012. p. 41–9 minutes.

      [79] Hanson H. Bones. United States of America: 20th Television; 2005 - 2017. p. 43 minutes.

      [80] Rhimes S. Grey's Anatomy. United States of America: Disney–ABC Domestic Television; 2005 - present. p. 43 minutes.

      [81] Liaw SY, Wu LT, Chow YL, Lim S, Tan KK. Career Choice and Perceptions of Nursing among Healthcare Students in Higher Educational Institutions. Nurse Education Today. 2017;52:66-72.

      [82] Guan P, Capezio A, Restubog SLD, ShariRead, Lajom JAL, Li M. The Role of Traditionality in the Relationships among Parental Support, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Career Adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2016;94:114-23.

      [83] Pappas TS, Kounenou K. Career Decision Making of Greek Post Secondary Vocational Students: The impact of Parents and Career Decision Making Selfefficacy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;15:3410-4.




Article ID: 14266
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i2.29.14266

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.