Solution for packet reordering in manet’s using cross layer based routing protocol

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    TCP allows sharing the information about network status using Cross Layer mechanism for the different layers. The Cross Layer approach in wireless MANETs is provided for improving TCP performance. The Optimal Path or Route Selection is an important aspect for increasing energy efficiency and lifetime of the network. A proposal for Trust Aware Routing protocol is described for selecting an optimal route in MANETs. Direct and Indirect trust values are used for estimating the trust value of every node in the network. The route cost amount is estimated and the best path with minimum cost value is chosen for the network. The data packet is transmitted on the optimal path, and the optimal path is selected on the minimum cost value of the network. There is a possibility of the packets being dropped due to congestion and / or mobility and there are chances of the packets being reordered during the transmission process. Reorder Identification mechanism is the procedure used for dropped and / or reordered packets. The simulation results of the proposed work are compared with the existing work and it shows more effective in terms of energy efficiency and network lifetime.


  • Keywords

    Cross Layer approach; MANET; Reorder Identification; TCP; Trust Aware Routing Protocol.

  • References

      [1] M. Sakthivel and V. Palanisamy, "Enhancement of accuracy metrics for energy levels in MANETs", Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 48, pp. 100 – 108, 2015.

      [2] S. Basurra, M. De Vos, J. Padget, Y. Ji, T. Lewis and S. Armour, "Energy efficient zone based routing protocol for MANETs", Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 25, pp. 16 – 37, 2015.

      [3] E. Daly and M. Haahr, "The challenges of disconnected delay-tolerant MANETs", Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 241 – 250, 2010.

      [4] M. Conti and S. Giordano, "Mobile ad hoc networking: milestones, challenges, and new research directions", IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 85 – 96, 2014.

      [5] V. Attada and S. PallamSetty, "Cross Layer Design Approach to Enhance the Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 305 – 319, 2015.

      [6] W. Kenny and S. Weber, "Below Cross-Layer: An Alternative Approach to Service Discovery for MANETs", Ad Hoc Networks, pp. 212 – 225, 2013.

      [7] Y. Qin, L. Li, X. Zhong, Y. Yang and C. Gwee, "A Cross-Layer QoS Design with Energy and Traffic Balance Aware for Different Types of Traffic in MANETs", Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 85, No. 3, pp. 1429 – 1449, 2015.

      [8] C. Gu and Q. Zhu, "A Minimum Interference Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 2741 – 2760, 2013.

      [9] M. Thaalbi, N. Tabbane, T. Bejaoui and A. Meddahi, "A Cross Layer Balanced Routing Protocol for Differentiated Traffics over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networking, pp. 407 – 419, 2013.

      [10] D. Kampitaki and A. Economides, "Simulation Study of MANET Routing Protocols Under FTP Traffic", Procedia Technology, Vol. 17, pp. 231 – 238, 2014.

      [11] M. Anuradha and G. Anandha Mala, "Cross-layer based congestion detection and routing protocol using fuzzy logic for MANET", Wireless Networks, 2016.

      [12] H. Chang, H. Kan and M. Ho, "Adaptive TCP congestion control and routing schemes using cross-layer information for mobile ad hoc networks", Computer Communications, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 454 – 474, 2012.

      [13] T. Carvalho, J. JailtonJúnior and R. Francês, "A new cross-layer routing with energy awareness in hybrid mobile ad hoc networks: A fuzzy-based mechanism", Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 63, pp. 1 – 22, 2016.

      [14] C. Gu and Q. Zhu, "A Minimum Interference Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 2741 – 2760, 2013.

      [15] A. Shafigh, B. Veiga and S. Glisic, "Cross layer scheme for quality of service aware multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks", Wireless Networks, 2016.

      M. Hawa, S. Taifour, M. Qasem and W. Tuffaha, "A dynamic cross-layer routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks", AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 66, No. 12, pp. 996 – 1005, 2012.




Article ID: 10086
DOI: 10.14419/ijet.v7i2.18.10086

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.