Radiological risk assessment of some consumed cigarettes and hookah in Iraq


  • Sahar Amin University of Technology
  • Azhar Haleem University of Technology
  • Ola Mahmood University of Technology





Cigarettes, CR-39, Hookah, Radioactivity, Radon.


The main purposes of the research are to assess the radiological risk due to smoking cigarettes and hookah and their impacts on the people health. Radon levels were measured in 28 consumed brands of cigarettes and 10 brands of hookah consumed Iraq using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The results showed that the 222Rn concentration in cigarette tobacco samples ranged from 138.9 to 781.2 Bqm-3 with average value of 318.0 Bqm-3. The radon concentrations emerged from 11brands of the investigated samples was significantly higher than the recommended value. While, its concentration in hookah ranged from 633.6 Bqm-3 to 416.6 Bqm-3 with average value of 509.5 Bqm-3. The Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in terms of (WL) units, Exposure to radon progeny (EP), and the annual effective dose (AED) in terms of (mSv/y) units were also obtained. Lung cancer cases per year per million people (CPPP) are also evaluated with an average value of 144.4 per million people. The result indicates that the average values of PAEC, EP and AED were within the recommended range values given by UNSCEAR, NCRP and ICRP respectively. The radioactive impact of smoking is considered as a risk factor for lung cancer.


[1] O. Naomi, M. C. Erik, Merchants of Doubts: How a handful of scientists obscured the truth on issues from tobacco smoke to global warming, Bloombury Press, London, (2010) 34-41.

[2] J. Winickoff, E. Muggli, J. Harrison, J. Friebely, S. Tanski, C. Sherrod, G. Matt, M. Hovell, R. McMillen, Beliefs about the Health Effects of Third hand Smoke and Home Smoking Bans, Pediatrics 13(1) (2009) 74-79

[3] Kh. H. Abass, M. S. Karim, Determination of alpha particles concentration in Clay Bricks Samples by CR-39 Detector, Journal of Babylon University: Pure and Applied Sciences 22(6) (2014) 1816-1819.

[4] P. Thangaraju, G. Barkavi, T. Karthikeyan, Mining lung cancer data for smokers and non-smokers by using data mining techniques, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 3(7) (2014) 7622-7626.

[5] World Health Organization (WHO) Information sheet, Radon and Health (2002)

[6] Y. W. Yi, Experimental determination of parameters of tracks on solid statenuclear track detectors from alpha particles with different incident energies and angles. M.Sc. Thesis, City University of Hong Kong (2004).

[7] L. Ponte, Radioactivity: The New-Found Danger in Cigarettes, Reader's Digest, Chappaqua, New York (1986) 123-127.

[8] H. A. A. Ghany, The association between indoor radon and tobacco smoke, Indoor Built Environ 15 (2006) 289-293.

[9] H. A. A. Ghany (2007) Enhancement of radon exposure in smoking area, Environmental Geochemistry and Health 29 (2007) 249-255.

[10] A. F. Hafez, A. S. Hussein, Radon activity concentrations and effective dose in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 55 (2001) 355-362.

[11] V. Z. Hamza, M. N. Mohankumar, Cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radon, Mutation Research 661 (2009) 1-9.

[12] A. K. Hashim, L. A. Najam, Radium and uranium concentrations measurements in vegetables samples of Iraq, Detection 3 (2015) 21-28.

[13] G. Somogi, A. Hafez, I. Hunyadi, M. Toth- Szilagyi, Measurement of exhalation and diffusion parameters of radon in solids by plastic track detectors, Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements 12(1-6) (1986) 701-704.

[14] B. Al-Bataina, A. Ismail, M. Kullab, K. Abumurad, H. Mustafa, Radon measurements in different types of natural waters in Jordan, Radiation Measurement 28(1) (1997) 591-594.

[15] A. H. Ismail, Z. A. Hussyin, Study of seasonal variations of radon levels and its risks inside different schools in Iraqi Kurdistan region for the first time, Proceeding of the 10th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology KOS island, Greece, 5-7 September, (2007) B-305-B317.

[16] A. H. Ismail, M. S. Jaafar, Indoor radon concentration and its health risks in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan using CR-39 NTDs, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (ICBBE), 4th international Conference in Cheng du ,18-20 June (2010).

[17] S. Kansal, R. Mehra, N. P. Singh, (2012) Life time fatality risk assessment due to variation of indoor radon concentration in dwellings in western Haryana, India, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 70 (2012) 1110-1112.

[18] International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication (ICRP) Protection against Radon-222 at home and at work. Annals of ICRP: Oxford: Pergamon press (1994) 1-45.

[19] A. M. Mowlavi, M. R. Fornasier, A. Binesh, M. de Denaro, Indoor radon measurement and effective dose assessment of 150 apartments in Mashhad, Iran. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 184 (2012) 1085-1088.

[20] United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR), The Effects of Atomic Radiation: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations, New York (2000).

[21] K. M. Abumurad, R. A. Al-Omari, Indoor radon levels in Irbid and health risks from internal doses. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) S389-S391.

[22] H. H. Mansour, Measurement of indoor radon level in Arbil capital by using solid state nuclear track detectors, Radiation measurement 40 (2005) 544-547.

[23] A. A. Abdullah, Internal and external radiation exposure evaluation amongst selected workers and locations in Iraq. Ph.D. Thesis. University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia (2013).

[24] International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication (ICRP), Statement on Radon, Ref. 00/902/09 (2009).

[25] United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR), Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations Publication E 94. 1X; 2 (1993) 33-89.

[26] A. K. Hashim, L. A. Najam, L. Tettey-Larbi, A study of radon concentration in different brands tobacco cigarette in Iraqi market, influencing factors and lung cancer risk, International Journal of Science and Technology 5(10) (2015).

[27] A. K. Hashim, L. A. Najam, A. F. Hadi, Kh. F. Fuliful, Lung cancer risk due to radon in different brand cigarette tobacco in Iraqi market, World Scientific News (WSN) 77(2) (2017) 163-176.

[28] National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), Control of radon in houses, Report No. 103 (1989).

[29] A. N. Sabbar, H. S. Naeem, Measurement of radon concentration in hookah flavor, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology 5(5) (2016) 272-274. doi : 10.17950/ijset/v5s5/512.

View Full Article: