Facile preparation of new polystyrene leucomalachite green thick films and study of their radiochromic behavior for low doses of gamma radiation
Keywords:Polystyrene, Leucomalachite Green, Radiochromic, Thick Films, Low Dose.
Colourless polystyrene-leucomalachite green (PS-LMG) thick films containing a suitable chloroalkane were prepared by a fast and facile casting method, and were investigated for their radio chromic response behavior under the influence of 1.25 MeV Î³-radiation. Their gamma response was studied in the 0.05 kGy to 10 kGy range to evaluate their suitability for potential use as the dosimeter in the radiation processing industries. The films were found to undergo a visibly distinct green coloration in the studied range, with the colour intensity increasing with an increase in the total dose. The radiochromic response of these films when investigated as a function of film thickness showed that the colour development as well as the linearity of the response was markedly affected by the thickness of the films. The effect of dye loading and the chloroalkane concentration on the radiochromic response of these films were also investigated. Depending upon the film thickness and reactant concentrations, the films were found to be capable of visually detecting gamma radiation doses as low as few tens of grays.
 Gafar SM & El-Ahdal MA, (2015) A new developed radiochromic film for high dose dosimetry applications. Dyes and pigments, Elsevier, vol. 114.
 Soliman YS, Basfar AA & Msalam RI (2014) A radiochromic film based on leucomalachite green for high dose dosimetry application. Radiation measurements, 62, 45-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.radmeas.2014.01.004.
 Ebraheem S & El-Kelany M (2013) Dosimeter Film Based on Ethyl Violet-Bromophenol Blue Dyed Poly (Vinyl Alcohol). Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, 3, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.4236/ ojpchem.2013.31001.
 El-Kelany M, Ebraheem S & Gafar SM (2012) Development of a plastic dosimeter for industrial use with high doses. Chemistry and Materials Research 2, 39-46.
 Tariq J Alwan (2012) Gamma irradiation effect on the optical properties and refractive index dispersion of dye doped polystyrene films. Turk J Phys, 36, 377-384.
 Mai HH, Solomon HM, Taguchi M & Kojima T (2008) Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as a low-dose dosimeter. Radiat. Phys. and Chem., 77, 457-462. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2007.06.012.
 Akhavan A, Sohrabpour M & Sharifzadeh M (2007) Dosimetric Evaluation of a Newly Developed Radiochromic Film for Radiation Processing. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction A, 31, 397-401.
 Kattan M, Daher Y & Alkassiri H (2007) A high-dose dosimeter-based polyvinyl chloride dyed with malachite green. Radiat Phys Chem; 76: 1195-99. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.radphyschem.2006.12.004.
 Pourbeigi H, Meigooni AS, Ghafourian H, Koona RA & Zahmatkesh MH (2005) Enhancement of MD-55-2 radiochromic film sensitivity using a multilayer film technique for applications in the low dose range. Iran. J. Radiat. Res., 3 (1): 11-15.
 Adamovics J & Maryanski MJ (2004) A new approach to radiochromic three-dimensional dosimetry-polyurethane. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 3 172â€“175. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/3/1/020.
 Mai HH, Duong ND &Kojima T (2004) Dyed polyvinylchloride films for use as high-dose routine dosimeter for radiation processing.Radiat. Phys. Chem. 69, 439-444. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2003.08.006.
 Moussa A, Baranyai, WojnÃ¡rovits, ML, KovÃ¡cs A & McLaughlin WL (2003) Dosimetry characteristics of the nitro blue tetrazolium polyvinylalcohol film for high dose applications. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 68, 1011-1015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem. 2003.09.003.
 Akhavan A, Sohrabpour M & Sharifzadeh M (2002) Preparation of a new chemical radiochromic film dosimeter. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 63, 773-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(01)00610-7.
 Cheung T, Buston MJ & Yu RK (2001) Use of multiple layers of Gafchromic film to increase sensitivity. Phys Med Biol, 46, 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/46/10/401.
 Miyaji T, Tokita T & Tachikawa T (2001) Development of a Radiation Dosimeter Consisting of Leuco Crystal Violet and a Small Amount of Halocarbons. Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 14, 225-226. https://doi.org/10.2494/ photopolymer.14.225.
 Abdel-Fattah AA, & El-Kelany M (1998) Radiation sensitive Indicator based on Radiationâ€“Chemical Formation of Acids in Polyvinyl Butyal Films Containing Chloral Hydrate. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 51, 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(97)00258-2.
 Niroomand-Rad A, Blackwell CR, Coursey BM, Gall KP, Galvin JM, McLaughlin WL, Meigooni AS, Nath R, Rodgers JE & Soares CG (1998) Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 55. Med Phys 25, 2093-2115. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.598407.
 Abdel-Fattah AA, Ebraheem S, El-Kelany M & Abdel Rehim (1996) High dose film dosimeters based on Bromophenol Blue or Xylenol Orange dyed polyvinyl alcohol. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 47:345-350.https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-8043(95)00266-9.
 Sidney LN, Lynch DC & Willet PS (1990) A new radiochromic dosimeter film. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 35, 770.https://doi.org/10.1016/1359-0197(90)90315-9.
 McLaughlin WL, Boyd AW, Chadwick KH, McDonald JC & Miller A (1989) Dosimetry for radiation processing. London. Taylor & Francis ISBN 0-85066-740-2.
 Miller A, Batsberg W & Karman W (1988) A new radiochromic thin film dosimeter system. Radiat. Phys.Chem. 31, 491-496.
 Saylor MC, Tamargo TT, Mclaughlin WL, Khan HM, Lewis DF & Schenfele RD (1988) A thin film recording medium for use in food Irradiation. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 31, 529-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/1359-0197(88)90222-6.
 Whittaker, B (1987) Radiation-sensitive material, UK. Patent Application GB 2182941 A.
 McLaughlin WL, Humphreys JC, Radak BB, Miller A & Olejnik TA (1979) The response of plastic dosimeters to gamma rays and electrons at high absorbed dose rates. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 14, 535-550. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-5724(79)90090-6.
 McLaughlin WL, Miller A, Fidan S, Pejtersen K, & Pederson WB (1977) Radiochromic plastic films for accurate measurement of radiation absorbed dose and dose distributions. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 10, 119-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-5724(77)90017-6.