Gas chromatography-mass spectral structural analysis, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of n-hexane leaf extract of Corymbia torelliana

  • Authors

    • Janet Moses Daben Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Jos
    • Dayil Albert Dashak Department of Chemistry Faculty of Natural Science University of Jos
    • Rahab Uwhomagbejo Isaac Department of Chemistry Faculty of Natural Science University of Jos
  • Antimicrobial Activity, Corymbia torelliana, Sodium Fusion Test, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, Phytochemical Screening.
  • The chemical studies and antimicrobial activity of n-hexane leaf extract of Corymbiatorelliana was evaluated for medicinal importance. The phytochemical constituents present were steroids, tannins, cardiac glycosides alkaloids and terpenes. The result of sodium fussion test revealed the presence of Phosphorus Nitrogen and Chlorine. The Column Chromatography gave several fractions that were pulled together by Thin Layer Chromatography based on their Rf values, colours and resolutions on different solvent systems. GC-MS was used to identify compounds like: Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediene, Pentadecanoic acid-14-methyl methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid-2-hydroxyl propyl ester, 2(4H)-Benzofuranone-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl and many others. Antimicrobial screening was carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger using the agar well diffusion technique. The result shows that the extract exhibit antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition in diameter. These results show that the plant exhibit antimicrobial activity and possess pharmacological characteristics, which could be applied in the production of potent drugs.

  • References

    1. [1] Adeniyi BA &Ayepola OO (2008) the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of eucalyptus camaldulensis and eucalyptustorelliana / (myrtaceae). Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 2, 34-38.

      [2] Adeniyi AG, Odufowoke RO &Olaleye SB (2006) Antimicrobial and gastroprotective properties of eucalyptus torelliana / (myrtaceae) crude extracts. International Journal of Pharmacology 2,362-365.

      [3] Alian AG, Felician A, Boniface Y, Alian KY, Chantal M & Dominique S (2012) Chemical and biological investigation of leaves of eucalyptus torellianaessentialoil from Benin. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 15, 6-12.

      [4] Atlas RM (1995) Microorganisms in our World 2ndedn. Mosby Publishers Inc. Baltimore, pp. 765.

      [5] Azra A, Ekwenchi MM, Dashak DA &Dildar A (2012) Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Phthalate isolate in n-hexane extract of Azadirachta A. Juss(Neem) leaves.Journal ofAmerican Science 8(12), 146-155.

      [6] Barret SV and Barret MP (2000) Anti-sleeping sickness drugs and cancer. Chemotherapy and Parasitology Today 16, 7-9.

      [7] Brunck JS, Koch A, Grzegorz M, Lehnhoff S, Margaretha P, Prakash GKS, Rasul G, Bau R &Olah GA (2001) 1,2 addition of TMS-CF3 TMS-CN toserially crowded 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1-3-cyclobutanedione. Journal of Indian Institute of Science 81, 227-237.

      [8] Bruneton J (1999) Pharmacognosy: Phytochemistry. In Medicinal Plants 2ndedn. London Intercept Ltd pp. 555-559.

      [9] Bwai MD, Afolabi M, Odukomaiya D, Ikokoh P & OrishadipeA (2014) Proximate composition, mineral and phytochemical constituents of Eleusinecoracana (finger millet).International Journal of Advance Chemistry 2(2), 171-174.

      [10] Chaturvedi S1, Driscoll WJ, Elliot BM, Faraday MM, Grunberg NE& Mueller GP (2006) In vivo evidence that N-oleoylglycine act independently of its conversion to oleamide.Prostaglandins and other Lipid Mediat 81(3-4), 136-149.

      [11] Costa JP1, Ferreira PB, De Sousa DP, Jordan J&Freitas RM (2012) Anticonvulsant effect of phytol in a pilocarpine model in mice. Neuroscience letter523 (2), 115-118.

      [12] Dashak D A &Ano J (2007) Chemical composition and phytochemical studies of Crinum zeylanicum. Journal of Sciences Engineering and Technology 14 (2), 7355-7365.

      [13] Dashak D A, Daben J M,Olaoye FM, Ogunbiade AT&OgboleE (2016) Evaluation of the essential oils constitutes from the leaves, seed buds and fruits of EucalytustorellianaF. Muel plant by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectral analysis. IOSR-Journal ofApplied Chemistry 9 (10), 45-60.

      [14] Fairlamb AH (1982) Trends Biochemistry Science: Difluoromethyornithine and the rationale development of polyamine antagonism in the cure ofprotozoa infection. In Mechanism of Drug Action, Academic press, USA, pp.159-173.

      [15] Farah A, Fechtal M, ChouchA&Zarira S (2002) The Essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and its natural hybrid (clone 583) from Morocco. Flavour Fragrance Journal 17, 395-397.

      [16] Ivan S, Pablo T, Juan CE, Natalia Q, Mauricio AC, Juan V, Christian E, Angelica F, Ricardo AT, Juan DM, Rodrigo L, Bruce KC, Ramon JE & Christian OS (2014) 2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: Synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. In Bioorganicand Medicinal Chemistry 22, 4609-4620.

      [17] Glasby JS (1999) Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites.Taylor and Francis Ltd, Londonpp. 125-225.

      [18] Harborne JB (1984). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 2ndedn. Chapman and Hall, London,pp 1, 11.

      [19] Hema R, Kumaravel S &Lagusundaram A (2011). GC/MS determination of bioactive components of Murrayakoenigii. Journal of American Science 7 (1), 80-83.

      [20] Kilulya KF, Msagati TAM, Mamba BM, Ngila JC & Bush T (2012) Ionic liquid-liquid extraction and supported liquid membrane analysis of lipophilic wood extractives from dissolving pulp. Chromatographia 75, 513-520.

      [21] Lee TA (1998) A Beginner’s Guide to Mass Spectral Interpretation. JohnWiley and Sons Inc. (NY) pp 1-21.

      [22] Lister PD, Wolter DJ & Hanson ND (2009) Antibacterial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Clinical impact and complex regulation of chromosomally encoded resistance mechanisms. Clinical Microbiology Revision 22(4), 582-610.

      [23] Mujeeb F, Bajpai P &Pathak N (2014) Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity and determination of bioactive compounds from leaves of Aeglemarmelos. BioMed Research InternationalAvailable at: (accessed 25 March 2016).

      [24] Ochei J&Kochatkar A (2007) Medical Laboratory Science, Theory and Practice.Tata McGraw-Hill Ltd, pp. 795-817.

      [25] Ogbole E, Dashak DA,Nvau JB, Daben MR, Abongaby G, Obaloto OB, Oladipo OO, Igweh AC (2016) Phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of the antitrypanosomal action of the methanolic leaf extract ofCorymbiatorelliana. International Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacology 3(1), 20-29.

      [26] Ololade ZS and Olawore NO (2013) Chemistry and medicinal potentials of the seed essential oil of Eucalyptus torellianaF.Muellgrown in Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Chemistry 13(3), 1- 11.

      [27] Omotoso AE, Eseyin OO & Suleiman M (2014) Phytochemical analysis ofCnidoscolusaconitifolius(Euphorbiaceae) leaf with spectrometric techniques. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research 3 (1), 38-49.

      [28] Roopashree TS, Dang R, Rani SRH, Narendra C (2009) Antibacterial activity ofantipsoriatic herb: Cassia tora, MomordicaCharantia and Calendula officinalis. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural products 1(3), 20-28.

      [29] Sanchez NR, Garcia DA, Shiavini MS, Nakamura CV &Filho BPD (2005) an evaluation of antibacterial activities of Psidiumguajava. Brazilian Journal of biotechnology48, 429-436.

      [30] Segelman AB, Farnsworth NR, and Quimby MD (1969) Biological and phytochemical evaluation of plants 111: False-negative saponins test results induced by the presence of tannins.Lloydia 32, 52-55.

      [31] Silverstein RM, Bassler GC & Morrill TC (1974) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds.3rdedn.John Wiley and Sons Inc. (NY) pp 41-71.

      [32] Sofowora A (1982) Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, pp.54-56.

      [33] Thomas KW (1975) Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry. (Williams BL & Wilson K ed.), Edward Arnold Ltd, London pp52-98.

      [34] Trease GE & Evans MD (1989) A textbook of Pharmacognosy. 13thedn. Braillier, Tindaland Caussel, London, pp. 244-248.

      [35] Vagahasiya YNR, Chanda S (2008) Antibacterial and preliminary phytochemical and physiochemical analysis of eucalyptus citriodora HK leaf.Natural Product Research 22(9), 754-762.

      [36] Vetter W1, Schröder M&Lehnert K (2012) Differentiation of refined and virgin edible oils by means of the trans- and cis-phytol isomer distribution.Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 60(24), 6103- 6107.

      [37] Vishnoi NK (1979) Advance Practical Organic Chemistry.Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd pp. 40-42.

      [38] Wall ME, Kreider MM, Krewson CF, Eddy CR, Williams JJ, Cordel DS & Gentry HS (1954) Survey of plants for steroidal sapogenins and other constituents. Journal of AmericanPharmaceutical Association 43, 1-7.

      [39] Williamson J & Scott-Finnigan TJ (1978) Trypanocidal activity of antitumour antibiotics and other metabolic inhibitors. Antimicrobial Agents andChemotherapy 13,735-744.

      [40] World Health Organization (2001) Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Available at: document/antimicrobial resistance/docs/global start.pdt(accessed 23 March 2015).

      [41] World Health Organization (2016) African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness). Fact sheet, no. 259. Available at: 25 August 2016).

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Moses Daben, J., Albert Dashak, D., & Uwhomagbejo Isaac, R. (2017). Gas chromatography-mass spectral structural analysis, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of n-hexane leaf extract of Corymbia torelliana. International Journal of Advanced Chemistry, 5(1), 39-53.