Antimicrobial activities of Desi Cow Dung Extracts against human pathogens and phytochemical analysis using chloroform extracts


  • Arabinda Nayak MAKAUT UNIVERSITY
  • Shivani Gohel





Antimicrobial, Cow dung, Microorganisms, Pneumonia, Synthetic Drugs


The main objective is to examine the anti-microbial properties and Photochemical screening of the cow dung extracts which are useful to kill the pathogens in humans.Nowadays there is increasing microbial drug resistance problem, so new alternative to synthetics drugs are explored. Along with it antimicrobial activities of natural products are in search. Study of anti-microbial activities of desi cow dung extracts of chloroform against microorganisms namely E. coli and K. Pneumonia.Also the phytochemical analysis for the flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins and phenol compounds. The antimicrobial sensitivity test by disk diffusion method and the disk made from the cow dung showed the zone of inhibition in the petri-plates of both the microorganisms namely E. coli and K. Pneumonia.The phytochemical analysis also showed colour change and precipitation except the phenols. As the microorganisms are becoming resistant to the antibiotics and synthetic drugs, new alternate natural drugs can be explored and used against several diseases caused by this microorganisms.




[1] NaskarSethuraman SK, Ray P Rc. Sprouting in plants by cow dung slurry. Validation of Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Agriculture Extension. Indian Council of Agricultural Research; 2003. p. 197-201.

[2] Jonker JS, Kohn RA. Using milk urea nitrogen to evaluate diet formulation and environmental impact on dairy farms. Sci World J 2001;1:852-9

[3] DhamaK, Rathore Rajesh, Chauhan RS, Tomar Simmi. Panchgavya (Cowpathy): an overview. Int J Cow Sci 2005; 1:20-2.

[4] S Rajeswari, E Poongothai, N Hemalatha. Antimicrobial activities of cow dung extracts against human pathogens. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8(4):9-12.

[5] Bharti Sharma, Maneesha Singh. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from cow dung of desi cow breed on different morpho-biochemical parameters in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Int J Adv Pharm BiolChem 2015; 4:276-81.

[6] Singleton P (1999). Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and Medicine (5th Ed.). Wiley. pp. 444–454. ISBN 0-471-98880-4.

[7] Vogt RL, Dippold L (2005). "Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with consumption of ground beef, June-July 2002". Public Health Reports. 120 (2): 1748. PMC 1497708. PMID 15842119

[8] Bentley R, Meganathan R (Sep 1982). "Biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) in bacteria". Microbiological Reviews. 46 (3): 241–80. PMC 281544. PMID 6127606.

[9] Hudault S, Guignot J, Servin AL (Jul 2001). "Escherichia coli strains colonising the gastrointestinal tract protect germfree mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection". Gut. 49 (1): 47–55.

[10] Muthukumaravel K, AAmsath, M Sukumaran. Vermicomposting of vegetable wastes using cow dung. E J Chem 2008; 5:810-3.

[11] Thompson, Andrea (2007-06-04). "Escherichia coli Thrives in Beach Sands". Live Science. Retrieved 2007-12-03.

[12] Ishii S, Sadowsky MJ (2008). "Escherichia coli in the Environment: Implications for Water Quality and Human Health". Microbes and Environments / JSME. 23 (2): 101–8.

[13] pdf.

[14] Hudson, Corey; Bent, Zachary; Meagher, Robert; Williams, Kelly (June 6, 2014). "Resistance Determinants and Mobile Genetic Elements of an NDM-1-Encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain".

[15] Nathisuwan, S; Burgess, DS; Lewis, JS (August 2001). "Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases: Epidemiology, Detection, and Treatment". Pharmacother.21 (8)

[16] Groopman, J (2008-08-11). "Superbugs". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2013-07-07. The new generation of resistant infections is almost impossible to treat.

[17] Rossberg, M.; et al. (2005), "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH,

[18] Gribble, Gordon W. (2004). "Natural Organohalogens: A New Frontier for Medicinal Agents?". Journal of Chemical Education. 81 (10): 1441.

[19] Chloroform, CICAD, 58, World Health Organization, 2004.

[20] Wiley, G. R.; Miller, S. I. (1972). "Thermodynamic parameters for hydrogen bonding of chloroform with Lewis bases in cyclohexane. Proton magnetic resonance study". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 94 (10): 3287–3293.

[21] Leikin, Jerrold B.; Paloucek, Frank P., eds. (2008). "Chloroform". Poisoning and Toxicology Handbook (4th Ed.). Informa. p. 774.


View Full Article: