Rutile-phased Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Microstructures by Hydrothermal Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)
Keywords:DSSC, Hydrothermal, Microstructure, Titanium Butoxide, Titanium Dioxide
This paper presents rutile-phased titanium dioxide (TiO2) microstructures fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis for the application as a photoanode in DSSC. The amount of precursor, titanium (IV) butoxide (TBOT) was varied from 0.5 to 2 ml and the changes on the surface morphology, structural and electrical property as well as their performance in DSSC were evaluated by using FE-SEM, XRD, 4-point probeand solar simulator respectively. Since the amount of precursor is too low, no rods were able to grow from the FTO substrates used, but flower formations can be seen on sample with 2 ml of TBOT. The structural analysis revealed rutile spectra for all samples with the peaks gradually increased as the amount of precursor increased. The conductivity decreases as the film thickens with increasing precursor amount, while the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased as the amount increase; as rutile structure is known to have good electron mobility. The performance of the TiO2 films in DSSC was evaluated, and the sample with the best performance was found in the film with 2 ml TBOT precursor at 0.234 % with Jsc and Voc of 0.759 and 0.643 respectively. Increased TBOT precursor is concluded to increase the efficiency of DSSC but the limit is yet to be studied and further research will be needed.
 S. Shafiee and E. Topal, â€œWhen will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?,â€ Energy Policy, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 181â€“189, 2009.
 D. Popov, â€œAn option for solar thermal repowering of fossil fuel fired power plants,â€ Sol. Energy, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 344â€“349, 2011.
 M. GrÃ¤tzel, â€œConversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells à¬,â€ vol. 164, pp. 3â€“14, 2004.
 M. H. Bazargan, M. M. Byranvand, A. N. Kharat, and L. Fatholahi, â€œNatural pomegranate juice as photosensitizers for dye- sensitized solar cell ( DSSC ),â€ vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 360â€“362, 2011.
 J. Gong, J. Liang, and K. Sumathy, â€œReview on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): Fundamental concepts and novel materials,â€ Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 5848â€“5860, 2012.
 A. Hagfeldt, G. Boschloo, L. Sun, and L. Kloo, â€œDye-sensitized solar cells,â€ Chemical, 2010.
 Z. S. Wang, H. Kawauchi, T. Kashima, and H. Arakawa, â€œSignificant influence of TiO2photoelectrode morphology on the energy conversion efficiency of N719 dye-sensitized solar cell,â€ Coord. Chem. Rev., vol. 248, no. 13â€“14, pp. 1381â€“1389, 2004.
 D. Chen et al., â€œMesoporous anatase TiO2 beads with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes: A superior candidate for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,â€ Adv. Mater., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 2206â€“2210, 2009.
 S. a M. Al-Batâ€™hi, I. Alaei, and I. Sopyan, â€œNatural photosensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells,â€ Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 3, no. 1, 2013.
 J. Yang, C. Bark, K. Kim, and H. Choi, â€œCharacteristics of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Nanotubes Treated with TiCl4,â€ Materials (Basel)., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 3522â€“3532, 2014.
 L. Meng, H. Chen, C. Li, and M. P. Dos Santos, â€œPreparation and characterization of dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells,â€ Thin Solid Films, vol. 577, pp. 103â€“108, 2015.
 T. Nikolay, L. Larina, O. Shevaleevskiy, and B. T. Ahn, â€œElectronic structure study of lightly Nb-doped TiO2 electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells,â€ Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 4, no. 4, p. 1480, 2011.
 H. Yin, Y. Wada, T. Kitamura, and S. Kambe, â€œHydrothermal synthesis of nanosized anatase and rutile TiO2 using amorphous phase TiO2,â€ J. Mater., 2001.
 F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, E. Mosconi, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. GraÌˆtzel, â€œAbsorption Spectra and Excited State Energy Levels of the N719 Dye on TiO 2 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Models,â€ J. Phys. Chem. C, vol. 115, no. 17, pp. 8825â€“8831, 2011.
 G. Amin, M. H. Asif, A. Zainelabdin, S. Zaman, O. Nur, and M. Willander, â€œInfluence of pH, precursor concentration, growth time, and temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures grown by the hydrothermal method,â€ J. Nanomater., vol. 2011, 2011.
 W. Zhou et al., â€œControl synthesis of rutile TiO2 microspheres, nanoflowers, nanotrees and nanobelts via acid-hydrothermal method and their optical properties,â€ CrystEngComm, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 4557â€“4563, 2011.
 K. J. Hwang, W. G. Shim, S. H. Jung, S. J. Yoo, and J. W. Lee, â€œAnalysis of adsorption properties of N719 dye molecules on nanoporous TiO2surface for dye-sensitized solar cell,â€ Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 256, no. 17, pp. 5428â€“5433, 2010.
 D. A. H. Hanaor and C. C. Sorrell, â€œReview of the anatase to rutile phase transformation,â€ pp. 855â€“874, 2011.
 W. Guo et al., â€œRectangular Bunched Rutile TiO 2 Nanorod Arrays Grown on Carbon 2 Fiber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.â€
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).