Reducing the risk to marine ports from invasive mosquito species, zika, dengue, chikungunya viruses and filariasis
Keywords:Aedes Albopictus, Arbovirus, Invasive Species, Port Security, Zika.
Background: Mosquitoes are the principal vector of pathogens to humans throughout the world. Ports are a primary means to which invasive mosquito species and the pathogens they carry are introduced into new areas and where the mosquito species was once eradicated.
Methods: The ports of Porto Cortes (Honduras) and Savannah Port, (USA) were evaluated using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS) invasive species model to determine what species would be most likely to invade and survive in the Jebel Ali Port area (UAE). The Porto Cortes study site was evaluated to determine if mosquito control using ecofriendly pesticides was practical at the port of origin.
Conclusion: The Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System TIGER model provides information that can be utilized to interdict and control invasive mosquito species to reduce the risk they become permanently established. The receiving ports were at risk from mosquito invasion, however, because of niche parameters, the Savannah Port was at risk from four invasive species from Honduras and the Jebel Ali Port was at risk from Ae. albopictus from Porto Cortes and Savannah and Ae. vexans from Savannah. Mosquito control was obtained at the point of origin and optimal surveillance and control sites were identified.
 Dar FK, Bayoumi R, al Karmi T, Shalabi A, Beidas F, Hussein MM (1993) Status of imported malaria in a control zone of the United Arab Emirates bordering an area of unstable malaria. Transactions Royal Society Tropical Medicine Hygiene 87:617-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(93)90261-N.
 Inter-Press News Agency (2006) Anti-malaria drive keeps dengue at bay, Emirates News Agency. http://www.ipsnotizie.it/wam_en/news.php.
 Lodge D (2006) six degrees of separation? Trade globalization and changing linkages among freshwater ecosystems. Ecology in an era of globalization: challenges and opportunities for environmental scientists in the Americas. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of America International Conference.
 Meyerson L & Mooney H (2007) Invasive Alien Species in an Era of Globalization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:199-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[199:IASIAE]2.0.CO;2.
 Moulis RA, Peaty LF, Heusel JL, Lewandowski HB Jr, Harrison BA, Kelly R, & Hager EJ. (2015). Mansonia titillans: New Resident Species or Infrequent Visitor in Chatham County, Georgia, and Beaufort County, South Carolina, USA. Journal American Mosqutio Control Association 31:167-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/15-6491R.
 Moulis RA, Russell JD, Lewandowski HB Jr, Thompson PS, & Heusel JL. (2008) Culex coronator in coastal Georgia and South Carolina. Journal American Mosqutio Control Association 24:588-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/5766.1.
 Tatem AJ, SI Hay SI, & Rogers DJ (2006) Global traffic and disease vectors. Proceedings National Academy Sciences USA 103: 6242-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0508391103.
 Yalwala S, Kollars JW, Kasembeli G, Barasa C, Senessie C, Kollars PG, Kollars TM Jr. (2016) Preliminary Report on the Reduction of Adult Mosquitoes in Housing Compounds in Western Kenya Using the ProVector Flower and Entobac Bait Pads Containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis With Honey Bait. Journal of Medical Entomology 53: 1242-1244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw075.
View Full Article:
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution Licensethat allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work''s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal''s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).