Assessment of the factors contributing to non- adherence of anti- retroviral therapy (ART) treatment among male patients at Katutura Health Centre, Khomas region


  • Nghitanwa Emma Maano University of Namibia
  • Niilonga Elina N





Antiretroviral Therapy, Factors, Male, Non-Adherence, Patients.


The purpose of this study was to assess and explore the contributing factors of non- adherence among male patients on Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment at Katutura Health Centre, Khomas Region. The objectives of this study were to determine and describe the factors contributing to non-adherence of ART treatment among male patients at Katutura Health Centre .Data were collected using the structured questionnaires.

A purposive sampling technique was used. The collected data were entered in data sets and analyzed using Statistical (SPSS) version 23.0 software to describe the phenomena and to assess the magnitude of ART non-adherence among male patients.

The study concluded that non-adherence of ART treatment among male patients in Katutura Health Centre, Khomas region is caused by different factors, such as, lack of food among patients on ART treatment, lack of transportation to the health facility for treatment and alcohol abuse. Therefore practical preventative interventions such as community education program should be developed and implemented to improve and ensure ART adherence.


[1] Bauleth MF, Van Wyk B &Ashipala DO (2016) Factors associated with poor adherence amongst patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at the Oshakati intermediate hospital in Namibia. International Journal of Healthcare. 2 (2): 89-100.

[2] Berhe N , Tegabu D, &Alemayehu M (2013) Effect of nutritional factors on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in North Ethiopia. BMC.Infectious Diseases. 13 (233):1-9.

[3] Demeke B &Chanie T (2014) Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Dessie Referral Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research.5: 572-581.

[4] Kip E, Ehlers VJ, van der Wal DM (2009) Patient’s Adherence to Anti- Retroviral Therapy in Botswana. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 41 (2):149-157.

[5] Makua T (2015) Reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Polokwane, Limpopo province, South Africa. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. (1): 107-114.

[6] McKinney O, Modeste NN, Lee J W, Gleason PC and Maynard- Tucker (2014) Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence among Women in Southern Malawi: Healthcare Providers Perspectives. AIDS Research and Treatment: 1-9.

[7] Ministry of Health Social and Services (2014).Surveillance Report of the 2014 National HIV Sentinel Survey. Windhoek, Namibia.

[8] Ministry of Health Social and Services. Katutura Health Center January –June 2016 statistic report, 2016. Windhoek, Namibia.

[9] Ministry of Health and Social Services. (2013)Annual Report for 2012-2013. Windhoek, Namibia.

[10] Okoronkwo I, Okeke U, Chinweuba A, and Iheanacho P ( 2013) Nonadherence Factors and Socio- demographic Characteristics of HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in NnamdiAzikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria . ISRN AIDS: 2-9.

[11] Reda A and Biadgilign S (2012) Determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy amongHIV-Infected Patients in Africa. AIDS Research and Treatment: 1-8.

[12] ShigdelR,KloumanE,Bhandari A and Ahmed L A (2014) Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients in Kathmandu District, Nepal. HIV/AIDS – Research and Palliative Care.6: 109-116.

[13] Tjituka F, Gweshe J, Mabirizi D, Sumbi V, Lukwago J &Sagwa E (2013) Namibia Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Baseline Survey Report. Windhoek. Namibia.

[14] Tuhadeleni O, Gary E, Ashipala DO and Nuuyoma V (2016) the Perceptions of HIV-Positive Patients (ART Patients) on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART), Treatment Supporters and Health Care Workers with Regard to their Role in ART Adherence at ART Clinics in the Intermediate Hospital Oshakati, Namibia. Health Science Journal. 5 (10):1-7.

[15] Science Journal

[16] UNAIDS (2006) Report on global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS.

[17] Wakibi SN, Ng’ang’a ZW and Mbugua GG (2011) Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Research and Therapy. 8 (43): 1-8.

[18] Watt MH, Maman S, Golin CE, Earp JA, Eng E, Bangdiwala S & Jacobson M (2010) Factors associated with self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a Tanzanian setting. AIDS Care. 22(3): 381–389.

[19] Weiser SD, Tuller DM, Frongillo EA, Senkungu J, Mukiibi N, Bangsberg DR: Food insecurity as a barrier to sustained antiretroviral therapy adherence in Uganda. PLoS One 2010, 5(4).

[20] World Health Organization (2006).Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV infection in adults and Adolescents in Resource-Limited settings: Towards Universal Access. Geneva: Switzerland.

View Full Article: