Conceptual framework for the formulation of strategies to support registered nurses in their utilisation of the nursing process when executing their roles and functions in local-level Primary health care (PHC) practicein Namibia
Keywords:Conceptual Framework, Local-Level Primary Health Care, Nursing Process, Primary Health Care, Registered Nurse, Strategies, Support.
This paper describes the conceptual framework upon which the development of strategies to support use of the nursing process by registered nurses in local-level Primary health care practice in Namibia was based. The conceptual framework was developed based on the findings of phase 1 of this study, which was a situational analysis to explore and describe the use of the Nursing Process by registered nurses in local level primary health care practice in Namibia and to identify constraints that registered nurses in local level Primary health care practice face as they implement the nursing process in their daily practice. The study was conducted in four phases namely as follow: Phase1: Needs assessment quantitative survey; Phase 2: Conceptualisation of findings from phase 1; Phase 3: Development of strategies to support the roles and functions of the registered nurse in local level PHC and Phase 4: Validation of these strategies. This article focusses on Phase 2: Conceptualisation of findings from phase 1 and it describes objectives 4 of the study namely, to develop a conceptual framework on which to base the formulation of relevant strategies.
From phase 1 which focused on needs assessment, findings indicate that registered nurses in local level Primary health care practice in Namibia fulfill most of their expected role functions. However, five main problem areas were identified. The challenges identified were categorised according to the five elements of PHC and management, namely, water and sanitation and related environmental health issues; nutrition and food supply; health education and communication; community diagnosis and care; and management support or administration, including research.
It was concluded that strategies needed to be developed to support registered nurses in their daily local Primary health care practice.
The development of the conceptual framework, which guided the development of strategies to support registered nurses use the nursing process in local level Primary health care practice, makes this study an original contribution to the body on knowledge.
 Amos, T., Ristow, A., Ristow, L., & Pearse, N. (2008).Human resource management (3rd ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Baldwin, K. A., Lyons, R. L., & Issel, L. (2010).Creating a brand image for public health nursing.Public Health Nursing. A Journal of Population Based Nursing, 28(1), 57â€“67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00899.x.
 Barnald, A., & Locsin, R. (2007).Technology and nursing practice, concepts and issues. New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
 Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Kozier, B., & Erb, G. (2008).Kozier & Erbâ€™s fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, processes and practice (8th ed.). New Jersey, USA: Pearson, Prentice Hall.
 Bhengu, B., Car, M., & Carter, C. (2008). Acute care: Clinical assessment and treatment of acutely ill patients. Professional nurses series. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Blass, E. (2009). Talent management. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230233522.
 Booyens, S. W. (1999). Dimensions of nursing management (2nd ed.). Cape Town: Juta.
 Carrol, P. (2006). Nursing leadership and management: A practical guide. Australia. Thomson Delmar Learning.
 Clark, M. J. (1996). Nursing in the community (2nded.). USA: Prentice Hall.
 Clark, M. J. (2008). Community health nursing: Advocacy for population health (5thed.). USA: Prentice Hall.
 Coetzee, M. & Roythorne-Jacobs, H. (2007).Career counseling and guidance in the workplace.Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Daft, R. L. (2010). Understanding the theory and design of organizations (10th ed.). Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
 Daft, R., Kendrick, M., & Vershinina, N. (2010). Management. UK: South-Western Cengage Learning.
 Dickoff, J., James, P., & Wiedenbach, E. (1968).Theory in a practice discipline. Part 1: Practice-oriented theory. Nursing Research, 17(5), 415â€“435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-196809000-00006.
 Du Toit, D. A., & Van Staden, S. J. (2009). Nursing sociology (4th ed.). Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Van Schaik.
 Eshun, S., & Gurung, R. A. (2009).Culture and mental health: Sociocultural influence, theory, and practice. London, UK: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444305807.
 Fawcett, B., & Waugh, F. (2008). Addressing violence, abuse and oppression: Debates and challenges. New York, USA: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
 Fraser, D. M., & Cooper, M. A. (2009).Myles textbook for midwives: The worldâ€™s favourite midwifery textbook! (5th ed.). London, UK: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.
 George, J. B. (2011). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
 Geyer, N., Mogotlane, S., & Young, A. (2009). Jutaâ€™s manual of nursing,Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Ginger, J. M., & Davidhizar, R. E. (2008).Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention (5th ed.). USA: Mosby Elsevier.
 Gopee, N. (2008). Mentoring and supervision in health care. New Delhi, India: Sage.
 Government of the Republic of Namibia (GRN). (1990). Constitution of the Republic of Namibia. Windhoek: Government of the Republic of Namibia.
 Government of the Republic of Namibia (GRN).Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) (1992).The Official National Primary Health Care/Community Based Health Care Guidelines.Windhoek Namibia: Ministry of Health and Social Services.
 Government of the Republic of Namibia (GRN) Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS). (January 1995). The Integrated Health Care Delivery: The challenges of implementation. A situation analysis and practical implementation guide.Windhoek Namibia: Ministry of Health and Social Services.
 Guest, D., & Scullion, P. (2007).Study skills for nursing and midwifery students. Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill, Open University Press.
 Hess, E. D., & Cameron, K. S. (2006). Leading with values: Positivity, virtue and high performance.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753770.
 Hopwood, G., Namibia Institute of Democracy (NID). (2008). Guide to Namibian politics. Windhoek, Namibia: John Meinert.
 Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M. T. (2008).Organizational behavior and management (9th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill, Irwin.
 Jamerson, P. A., & Vermeersch, P. (2012).The role of the nurse research facilitator in building research capacity in the clinical setting.Journal of Nursing Administration, 42(1), 21â€“27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e31823c180e.
 Jones, R. A. P. (2007). Nursing leadership and management: Theories, processes and practices. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis.
 Jooste, K. (2009). Supervision in nursing practice:Professional nurses series. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik.
 Jooste, K. (2010). The principles and practice of nursing and health care:Ethos and professional practice, management, staff development and research. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik.
 Mank, K. (2006). Gerontological nursing: Competencies for care. Canada: Jones and Bartlett.
 Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H. (2000). Human resource management (9th ed.). Canada: South-Western College Publishing.
 Monekosso, G. L. (1994). District health management planning: Implementing and monitoring a minimum health for all package.Geneva: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.
 Morrison, J. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence and preferred conflict-handling styles. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 974â€“983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00876.x.
 Muller, M., Bezuidenhout, M., & Jooste, K. (2006). Health care services management. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Muller, M. (2001). Nursing dynamics (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Heinemann.
 Nursing Professions Act 8 of 2004.Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia. 3249. Namibia. Windhoek: Government printer
 Oxford Advanced Learnerâ€™s Dictionary. (2010). (8th ed.). International Studentsâ€™s edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
 Pilgrim, D. (2010).The hegemony of cognitive-behaviour therapy in modern mental health care.Health Sociology Review, 20(2), 120â€“132. http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/hesr.2011.20.2.120.
 Pretorius, L. (2008). An educational programme to facilitate critical thinking of student nurses in Namibia.Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Nursing Science at the University of Namibia. Windhoek: University of Namibia.
 Rassool, G. H. (2009). Alcohol and drug misuse: A handbook for students and health professionals. New York, USA: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
 Rossouw, D., Le Roux, S. J., & Groenewald, D. (2003). Strategic management:An applied South African perspective. Cape Town, South Africa: New Africa Education.
 Searle, C. (1987). Professional practice:A South African nursing perspective. Durban: Butterworths.
 Searle, C., Human, S., & Mogotlane, S. M. (2009). Professional practice: A southern African nursing perspective (5th ed.). Johannesburg, South Africa: Heinemann.
 Smit, P. J., Cronje, G. J., Brevis, T., & Urba, M. J. (2007). Management principles: A contemporary edition for Africa (4th ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2008). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (7th ed.). Canada: Mosby, Elsevier.
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2000).Community & public health nursing (5th ed.). New York: Mosby.
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2006). Foundations of nursing in the community: Community-oriented practice (2nd ed.). China: Mosby-Elsevier.
 Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2010). Foundations of Nursing in the
 Community-Community oriented Practice. (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
 Tomey, A. M. (2009).Guide to nursing management and leadership (8th ed.). Canada: Mosby Elsevier.
 Vlok, M. E. (1996). Manual of community nursing and communicable diseases (5th ed.). Cape Town: Juta.
 World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). WHO: Primary health care. Accessed from http://www.who.int/topics/primary health care/en/.on the 6/6/2009.