Effects of gallium, indium, and arsenic dose biomarkers and malondialdehyde on zinc protoporphyrin and DNA fragments in optoelectronic workers

  • Authors

    • Yen-Hsiung Liao
  • Optoelectronic, ZPP, DNA Fragments.
  • Purpose: To investigate whether occupational exposure to gallium, indium, and arsenic may disrupt normal heme production and damage DNA by initiating the release of lipid peroxidation.

    Methods: 101exposed optoelectronic workers and 65 referents were tested for their whole blood and urine levels of gallium, indium, and arsenic. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood zinc protophorphyrin (ZPP), and serum DNA fragments were used as indicators of toxic hazards.

    Results: The MDA, ZPP, and DNA fragment mean levels in the exposed workers were significantly higher than those in the referents. The levels of urine gallium in the exposed workers were significantly correlated with the levels of whole blood ZPP and serum DNA fragments respectively. MDA (the production of lipid peroxidation) may be one of the mechanisms for gallium-related DNA damage in multiple regression models. In addition, gallium was found to have a synergistic effect with arsenic on MDA level that may induce indium to damage DNA in blood cells.

    Conclusion: ZPP and DNA fragments can be elevated by gallium exposure, and the MDA increase due to combined exposure to gallium and arsenic may play a role in indium-induced DNA damage.

  • References

    1. [1] Alexander BH, Checkoway H, Costa-Mallen P, Faustman EM, Woods JS, Kelsey KT, Netten C, & Costa LG (1998). Interaction of blood Pb and [delta] - aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in Pb smelter workers. Environmental Health Perspective 106, 213 – 216.

      [2] Aoki Y, Lipsky MM, & Fowler BA (1990). Alternation of protein synthesis in primary culture of rat kidney epithelial cells by exposure to Ga, in, and as (1990). Toxicology & Apl Pharm 106, 462 – 468.

      [3] Bonfoco E, Krainc D, Ankarcrona M, Nicotera P, & Lipton SA (1995). Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced, respectively, by mild and intense insults with N- methyl - - aspartate or nitric oxide/superoxide in cortical cell cultures. Proc Acad Sci USA 92, 7162 – 7166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.92.16.7162.

      [4] Carson DA, & Ribeiro JM (1993). Apoptosis and disease. Lancet 341, 1251 – 1254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)91154-E.

      [5] Chang KL, Liao WT, Yu CL, Cheng CE, Chang LW, & Yu HS (2003). Effects of Ga on immune stimulation and apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 193, 209 – 217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2003.07.004.

      [6] Chisolm JJ & Brown DH (1975). Micro-scale photofluorometric determination of free erythrocyte porphyrin (protoporphyrin Ⅸ). Clin Chem 21, 1669 – 1681.

      [7] Chitambar CR (2004). Apoptotic mechanism of gallium nitrate: basic and clinical investigations. Oncology 18 (Suppl 10), 39 – 44.

      [8] Chimbar CR, Mathacus WG, Antholine WE, Graff K, & O'Brien WJ (1988). Inhibition of leukemic HL60 cell growth by transferring-gallium: effects on ribonucleotide reductase and demonstration of drug synergy with hydroxyurea. Blood 72, 1930 – 1936.

      [9] Chitambar CR, Narasimba J, Guy J, Sem DS, & O'Brein WJ (1991). In hibition of ribonucleotide reductase by Ga in murine leukemic L1210 cells. Cancer Research 51, 6199 – 6201.

      [10] Chitambar CR & Zorica Z (1987). Inhibition of hemoglobin production by transferring-gallium. Blood 1, 144 – 149.

      [11] Dagg JH, Goldberg A, & Lochhead (1966). Value of erythrocyte protoporphyrin in the diagnosis of latent iron deficiency (sideropenia). Br J Haematol 12, 326 – 330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.1966.tb05638.x.

      [12] Distelharst CW (1988). Glucocorticosteroids induce DNA fragmentation in human lymphoid leukemia cell. Blood 72, 1305 – 1309.

      [13] Edelman P (1990). Environmental and workplace contamination in the semiconductor industry: implications for future health of the workforce and community. Environ Health Perspect 86, 291 – 295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9086291.

      [14] Fowler BA, Yamauchi H, Conner EA, & Akkerman M (1993). Cancer risks for humans from exposure to the semiconductor metals. Scand J Work Environ Health 19, 101 – 103.

      [15] Granick S, Sassa S, Granick JL, Levere RD, & Kappas A (1972). Assay for porphyrins, [delta]- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and porphyrinogen synthetase in microliter samples of whole blood: applications to metabolic defects involving the heme pathway. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 69, 2381 – 2385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.69.9.2381.

      [16] Harris WR & Pecoraro VL (1983). Thermodynamic binding constants for gallium transferrin. Biochemistry 22, 292 -299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi00271a010.

      [17] Harthoorn-Lasthuizen EJ, Sant PV, Lindemans J, & Langenhuijsen M (2000). Serum transferring receptor and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin in patients with anemia. Clin Chem 46, 719 – 722.

      [18] Hastka J, Lasserre JJ, Schwarzbeck A, Strauch M, & Hehimann R (1993). Zinc protoporphyrin in anemia of chronic disorder. Blood 81, 1200 – 1204.

      [19] He LF & Chen JG (2006). DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes World J Gastroenterol 12 (7), 1144 – 1148.

      [20] Hegde ML, Anitha S, Latha KS, Mustak MS, Stein R, Ravid R, & Rao KS (2004). First evidence for helical transitions in supercoiled DNA by anyloid beta peptide (1 -42) and Al: a new insight in understanding Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Neurosci 22, 19 – 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/JMN:22:1-2:19.

      [21] Hingst O & Blottner S (1995). Quantification of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in mammalian test by DNA-fragmentation ELISA. Theriogenology 44, 313 – 319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(95)00186-C.

      [22] Kasprzak KS (1995). Possible role of oxidative damage in metal-induced carcinogenesis. Cancer Invest 13, 411 – 430. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07357909509031921.

      [23] Konishi A, Shigeomi S, Hirota J, Takao T, Fan Y, Matsuoka Y, Zhang L, Yoneda Y, Fuji, Skoultchi AI, & Tsujimoto Y (2003). Involement of histone H1.2 in apoptosis induced by DnA double-strand breaks. Cell 114, 673 – 688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00719-0.

      [24] Labbe RF, Rettmer RL, Shah AG, & Turnlund JR (1987). Zinc protoporphyrin: past, present and future. Ann NY Acad Sci 514, 7 -14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb48755.x.

      [25] Larson SM, Rasey JS, Allen DR, Nelson NJ, Grumbaum Z, Harp GD, & Williams DL (1980). Common pathway for tumor cell uptake of gallium-67 and iron-59 via a transferring receptor. J Natl Cancer Inst 64, 41 – 53.

      [26] Liao YH, Hwang LC, Kuo JS, Yiin SJ, Lin SF, Lin CH, & Aw TC (2006). Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to Al, Ga, In, As, and Sb in the optoelectronic industry. J Occup Environ Med 48, 789 – 793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000229782.71756.8e.

      [27] Liao YH, Yu HS, Ho CK, Wu MT, Yang CY, Chen JR, & Chang CC (2004). Biological monitoring of exposure to Al, Ga, In, As, and Sb in optoelectronic industry workers. J Occup Environ Med 46, 931 – 936. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000137718.93558.b8.

      [28] Mischima Y, Terui Y, Mishima Y, Katsuyama M, Mori M, Tomizuka H, Takizaka Y, Miyazato A, Ueda M, Yamada M, Hayasawa H, Mizunuma N, Ishizaka Y, Ikeda K, Kato T, Ozawa K, & Hatake K (2002). New human myelodysptastic cell line, TER-3: G-CSF specific downregulation of Ca+2 /almodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. J of Cell Pbys 191, 183 – 190.

      [29] Narasimhan J, Antholine WE, & Chitambar CR (1992). Effect og gallium on the tyrosul radical of iron-dependent M2 submit of ribonucleotide reductase. Biochem Pharmacol 44, 2403 – 2408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(92)90686-D.

      [30] Ochm A, Behrmann I, Falk W, Pawlita M, Maier G, Klas C, Weber ML, Richards S, Dhein J, Trauth BC, Ponsting H, & Krammer PK (1992). Purification and molecular cloning the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. J of Biol Chem 267 10709 – 10715.

      [31] Pan TC, Horng CJ, Lin SR, Lin TH, & Huang CW (1993). Stimultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu in urine of patient with blackfoot disease using anodic stripping voitammetry. Biol Trace Element Res 38, 233- 250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02785308.

      [32] Robinson AL (1983). GAAS readied for high-speed microcircuits. Science 219, 275 – 277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.219.4582.275.

      [33] Roh YM, Kim K, & Kim H (2000). Zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ concentrations between normal adults and the Pb-exposed workers measured by HPLC, spetrofluorometer, and hematofluorometer. Indust Health 38, 372 – 379. http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.38.372.

      [34] Rosel E, Costin KA, & Garcia-Webb P (1990). Effect of occupational Pb exposure on lymphocyte enzymes in heme biosynthesis 36, 1980 -1983.

      [35] Rossi E, Attwood PV, Garcia-Webb P, & Costin KA (1990). Metal inhibition of ferrochelatase activity in human lymphocytes. Clin Chim Acta 188, 1 – 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(90)90141-E.

      [36] Uwai M, Terui Y, Mishima Y, Tomizuka H, Ikeda M, Itoh T, Mori M, Ueda M, Inoue R, Yamada M, Hayasawa H, Horiuchi T, Niho Y, Matsumoto M, Ishizaka Y, Ikeda K, Ozawa K, & Hatake K (2000). A new apoptotic pathway for the complement factor B-derived fragment Bd. J of cell Phys 1985, 280 – 292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4652(200011)185:2<280::AID-JCP13>3.0.CO;2-L.

      [37] Wang AG, Xia T, Chu QL, Zhang M, Liu F, Chen XM, & Yang KD (2004). Effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis in human embryo hepatocytes. Biomed Environ Sci 17 (2), 217 -222.

      [38] Willianm RD, Riaz UH, Majewski D, & Lum LG (1996). Modulation of in vitro and in vivo T-cell response by transferring-gallium and gallium nitrate. Blood 8, 3056 – 3064.

      [39] Woods JS, Carver GT, & Fowler BA (1979). Altered regulations of hepatic heme metabolism by indium chloride. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 49, 455 – 461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(79)90446-0.

      [40] Zhou J, Meng R, Sui X, Meng L, Jia J, & Yang B (2005). Effects of administration styles of arsenic trioxide on intracellular as concentration, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Haematologica 90, 1277 – 1279.

  • Downloads

  • How to Cite

    Liao, Y.-H. (2015). Effects of gallium, indium, and arsenic dose biomarkers and malondialdehyde on zinc protoporphyrin and DNA fragments in optoelectronic workers. International Journal of Health, 3(1), 24-28. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijh.v3i1.4532