Screening for diabetic nephropathy at diabetes clinic in Su-dan
Background: Diabetes mellitus and its complications are one of the major health problems in Sudan. Only few patients had been screened before their complications appeared. As a result of this, many patients have not been discovered and ended with late stages of the disease, and are now showing evidence of diabetic nephropathy.
Objective: The main aim of this study is at discovering the factors in terms of patients’ knowledge that are leading to the defect in diabetic nephropathy screening at one of the diabetes clinics.
Methods: This cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was conducted at University charity teaching hospital affiliated to University of Medical Sciences and Technology (UMST) and covered 56 patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus during the period from August to October 2013. Information was obtained by direct interviewing of patients using a questionnaire, and filled in the form of an interview.
Results: A total of 56 patients were included, their mean age group was 60-69 and of them 51.8% were males. Regarding awareness about the symptoms of diabetic nephropathy, the most known symptom was fatigue, known by 27 (48.2%). Out of all the participants 55 (98.2%) reported checking their blood pressure regularly. A total of 50 (89.2%) believed that smoking had a harmful effect on their diabetes and 12 (21.4%) participants smoke cigarettes. Regarding exercise (54, 96.4%) believed that exercise is helpful in decreasing the incidence of diabetic nephropathy, however only 16 (28.6%) participants reported exercising regularly. A total of 51 (91%) have heard about the screening for diabetic nephropathy yet only 46 (82.1%) participant had their screening done regularly.
Conclusion: Majority of participants had an understanding of the factors and knowledge on the signs of diabetic nephropathy, yet not all have evaded the risk factors. Raising awareness is essential but providing facilities to ensure its compliance is required.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Nephropathy.
Abdelgadir M, Elbagir M, Eltom M & Berne C (2006): The influence of glucose self-monitoring on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus in Sudan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 74, 90-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2006.03.003.
Abdelgadir M, Elbagir M, Eltom M, Berne C & Ahren B (2002): Reduced leptin concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sudan. Metabolism 51, 304-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/meta.2002.30504.
Ahmed ME & Abdelrhan SH (2006): The role of medical students in patient education to promote home management of diabetes mellitus in wad medani town, Sudan 2003. J Family Community Med 13, 41-46.
Elbagir MN, Eltom MA, Elmahadi EM, Kadam IM & Berne C (1998): A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the Danagla community in northern Sudan. Diabet Med 15, 164-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199802)15:2<164::AID-DIA536>3.0.CO;2-A.
Elrayah-Eliadarous H, Yassin K, Eltom M, Abdelrahman S, Wahlstrom R & Ostenson CG (2010): Direct costs for care and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Sudan. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 118, 220-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1246216.
Kraft SK, Lazaridis EN, Qiu C, Clark CM, Jr. & Marrero DG (1999): Screening and treatment of diabetic nephropathy by primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med 14, 88-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.1999.00292.x.
MakkiAwouda FO, Elmukashfi TA & Hag Al-Tom SA (2013): Designing an educational and training program for diabetes health educators at Diabetic Health Centers, Khartoum State, Sudan; 2007-2010. Glob J Health Sci 5, 207-211.
Rim TH, Byun IH, Kim HS, Lee SY & Yoon JS (2013): Factors associated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy screening in Korea: the Third and Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III and IV). J Korean Med Sci 28, 814-820. http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2013.28.6.814.