Personal hygiene and taking into account the preventive measures and safety among healthcare providers

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Negligence of personal hygiene and safety practices among healthcare personnel is not only a major risk factor in the spread of infection, but is in many instances an abuse of human rights.

    Aim: the study aim was to assess the personal hygiene and taking into account the preventive measures and safety among healthcare providers.

    Tools: An interview questionnaire sheet and personal hygiene and vaccination status.

    Subject and methods: A descriptive design was used in the current study and all available doctors, nurses and housekeeper in the days of data collection.

    Results: It was found that the majority of physicians (76.2%) were holders of a bachelor degree of medicine, while the majority of nurses were holders of a diploma /technical of nursing and the majority of housekeepers were holders of a basic education. There were highly statistical significant differences based on study groups, profession, and qualifications.

    Conclusion: The adherence of the majority of healthcare provider with personal hygiene and safety measures were ranged from poor to fair. There was a relationship between availability of protective equipments barrier and personal hygiene practices and safety measures. Recommendations: A significant efforts are needed to enhance universal precaution compliance among caregivers includes training, strict supervision with disciplinary measures for poor compliance with improve the facilities available and equipments for personal hygiene and safety.

  • Keywords

    Health Care Providers; Personal Hygiene; Standard Precautions; Safety.

  • References

      [1] Alam, A. Y. and Alabdulaali, M. K. (2016): Awareness to Implementation on Select Quality and Patient Safety Indicators among Nursing Staff. J Comm Pub Health Nursing. 2(1): 1-5.

      [2] Aiello AE, Larson EL, and Sedlak R, (2008): Personal health. Bringing good hygiene home. Am J Infect Control.36:152–165?

      [3] Alice, T., E., Akhere, A., D., Ikponwonsa, O., and Grace. E. (2013): Knowledge and practice of infection control among health workers in a tertiary hospital in Edo state, Nigeria, Direct Research Journal of Health and Pharmacology.1 (2): 20–27.

      [4] Abou El-enein, N. El Mahdy, H. (2011): Standard precautions: a KAP study among nurses in the dialysis unit in a University Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Public Health Association. 86, 3-10.

      [5] Askarian, M., Khalooee, A., and Nakhaee, N. (2006): Personal hygiene and safety of governmental hospital staff in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 12 (6): 768-74.

      [6] Abu Salama, M., E., El-Shazly, H., M., A., and Dewidarb, M., A.,A.(2017): Infection control awareness among healthcare providers in family health settings in Shebin El-kom district, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt Menoufia Medical Journal. 27:840–846.

      [7] Ariyaratne, M., Gunasekara, T., Weerasekara, M., M., J., Kottahachchi, J., B., P., Kudavidanage, B., P., and Fernando, S., S. (2013): Knowledge, attitudes and practices of hand hygiene among final year medical and nursing students at the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases. 3(1); 15-25.

      [8] Abd Elaziz, K., M., and Bakr, I., M.(2008): Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine 26 (2):1-12.

      [9] Al-Khawaldeh, O., A., Al-Hussami, M., and Muhammad Darawad, M. (2015): Influence of Nursing Students Hand washing Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes on Their Hand washing Compliance. Health. (7): 572-579.

      [10] Amoran, O., E., and Onwube, O., O. (2013): Infection control and practice of standard precautions among healthcare workers in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 5(4): 156-63.

      [11] Afolaranmi, T., O., Hassan, Z., I., Bello, D., A., Oyebode, T., and Chingle, M., P., (2017): Assessment of knowledge and practice of standard safety precautions among primary health care workers in Plateau State North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical Research. 8 (4): 187-193.

      [12] Centers for Disease Control. (1988): Update, Universal Precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other blood borne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR, 37, 377-388.

      [13] Chhabra, S., A. (2017): Health hazards among health care personnel. Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences.21 (1):19-24.

      [14] Cooke, K. (2014): Dress code, personal hygiene and uniform/work wear mandatory policy for staff. Ashford & St. Peter’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.2 (4):15-23.

      [15] Chopra, S., Walia, I., Verma, P., Vati, J. (2008): Knowledge and practices related to compliance with universal precautions: A Study among Staff Nurses of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Nursing and Midwifery Research Journal, 4(2): 59-67.

      [16] Chou, T., Kerridge, J., Kulkarni, M., Wickman, K., & Malow, J. (2010): Changing the culture of Hand Hygiene compliance using a bundle that includes a violation letter. American Journal of Infection Control September 2010; 38(7): 575-8.

      [17] Dorgahm, S., R., and Obied, H., K. (2016): Factors affecting nurse interns’ compliance with standard precautions for preventing stick injury. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 6(12): 121- 130.

      [18] Efstathiou, G., Papastavrou, E., Raftopoulos,V., and Merkouris, A.(2011): Factors influencing nurses’ compliance with standard precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study. BMC Nursing. 10(1): 1-12.

      [19] El-Sayed, Z., M., Gomaa, A., and Abdel-Aziz, M. (2015): nurses’ knowledge and practice for prevention of infection in burn unit at a University Hospital: Suggested Nursing Guidelines. Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 4, (I): 62-69.

      [20] Gorar, Z, .A. Butt, Z., A., and Aziz, I. (2014): Risk factors for bloodborne viral hepatitis in healthcare workers of Pakistan: a population based case-control study. BMJ Open. 4: e004767.

      [21] Hassan, B., A., R. (2012): Importance of Personal Hygiene. Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 3(8): 3-8.

      [22] Hutt, J. (2003): Fundamentals of Care, Guidance for Health and Social Care Staff Improving the quality of fundamental aspects of health and social care for adults. 1-67.

      [23] Hussain, S., Patrick, N., A., and Shams, R., (2010): Hepatitis B and C prevalence and prevention awareness among health care workers in a Tertiary Care Hospital. International Journal of Pathology. 8(1): 16-21.

      [24] Haile, T., G., Engeda, E., H., and Abdo, A. (2017): Compliance with Standard Precautions and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health.1-8.

      [25] Ibrahim, Y., Ali, H., S., and Mohamed, E., E. (2013): Perception of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Hand Hygiene among Nurses in the Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al Mukaramah. Journal of American Science. 9(6): 299-509.

      [26] Jawaid, M., Iqbal, M., and Shahbaz. S. (2009): Compliance with standard precautions: a long way ahead,” Iranian Journal of Public Healthvol. 38(1): 85–88.

      [27] Kaphle, H., P., Poudel, S., Subedi, S., Gupta, N., Jain, V., and Paudel, P. (2015): Awareness and Practices on Injection Safety among Nurses Working in Hospitals of Pokhara, Nepal. Int J Med Health Sci. 3(4): 301-307.

      [28] Mohammadi N., Allami, A., and MalekMohamadi,R.(2011): Percutaneous exposure incidents in nurses Knowledge, practice and exposure to hepatitis B infection: Percutaneous exposure incidents in nurses. Hepat Mon; 11: 186-190.

      [29] Mbaisi, E., M., Ng’ang’a, Z., Wanzala, P., and Omolo, j. (2013): Prevalence and factors associated with percutaneous injuries and splash exposures among health-care workers in a provincial hospital, Kenya, 2010. Pan Afr Med J. 14(10):1-8.

      [30] Manyele, S., V., Ngonyani, H., A., M., and Eliakimu, E. (2008): The status of occupational safety among health serviceproviders in hospitals in Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Researc. 10, (3): 159-165.

      [31] McGaw C., Tennant I., Harding, H., E., Cawich, S., O., Crandon, I., W., and Walters C.,A., (2012): Healthcare workers’ attitudes to and compliance with infection control guidelines in the operating department at the University Hospital of the West Indies Jamaica, International Journal of Infection Control.8( 3): 1-9.

      [32] Maingi, S., M. (2015): Factors influencing compliance with hand hygiene guidelines among healthcare providers In Kenya: A Case of Embu Level Five Hospital, Embu County. Published Master. University of Nairobi. 1-71.

      [33] Mahmood, S., E., Verma, R., and Khan, M., B. (2015): Hand hygiene practices among nursing students: importance of improving current training programs. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2(4):466-471.

      [34] Manuel, M., Daphnie, L., D’cunha, S., and Suresh, S. (2017): A study to assess the awareness regarding occupational health hazards among the employees in the laundry department of a selected hospital. Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research. 6 (1): 40-44.

      [35] Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2013): Caring for our caregivers. Facts about hospital worker safety. Available from www.osha gov/dsg / hospitals.

      [36] Peethala S., and, Garapati,S.(2017):A study on assessment of safe injection practices among internees in government general hospital, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 4(11):4321-4325.

      [37] Nazarko, L. (2009): Potential pitfalls in adherence to hand washing in the community, British Journal of Community Nursing. 14(2): 64-68.

      [38] Sadoh, W., E., Fawole, A., O., Sadoh, A., E., Oladimeji, A., O., Sotiloye, O., S., (2006): Practice of universal precautions among healthcare workers. Journal of the National Medical Association. 98(5):722-726.

      [39] Solanky, P., Baria, H., Nerulkar, A., and Chavda, N. (2016): Knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nursing staff at a tertiary care hospital in South Gujarat, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 3(9):2373-2376.

      [40] Umar, A., G., and Aisha, A. (2017): Common occupational health hazards amongst Health care workers in a Tertiary Health Institution in Bida, North-central Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical Research, 8(01):01-06.

      [41] Uchenna, A., P., Johnbull, O., S., Chinonye, E., E., Christopher, O., T., and Nonye, A., P. (2015): The knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal precaution among rural primary health care workers in enugu southeast Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4(9): 109-125

      [42] Vaz K., McGrowder D., Alexander-Lindo R., Gordon L., Brown, P., and Irving, R.(2010): Knowledge, awareness and compliance with universal precautions among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. International Journal of occupational and environmental Medicein.1 (4): 171-181.

      [43] Yassi, A., Lockhart, K., Copes, R., Kerr, M., Corbiere, M., Bryce, E., Patrick, D., Bigelow,P., and Saunders, S.(2007): Determinants of healthcare workers’ compliance with infection control procedures. Healthcare Quarterly.10 (1): 44-52.

      [44] World health organization (2003). AIDE-MEMOIRE.for a strategy to protect health workers from infection with blood borne viruses. and on the Safe Injection Global Network internet forum at




Article ID: 8712
DOI: 10.14419/ijans.v7i1.8712

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.