An assessment of knowledge and factors that exposed young female student nurses to hiv infection at the university of Namibia, oshakati campus

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • References
  • PDF
  • Abstract

    Background: This study presents an assessment of knowledge and an investigation of specific factors that expose young female student nurses to HIV and AIDS at university of Namibia, Oshakati Campus. The concern over to what young female student nurses are able to control various issues of their sexual lives is critical question for health promotion and the prevention of further HIV infection. Student nurses are believed to have adequate information about HIV and AIDS compared to other young people in the communities.

    Aim: To assess HIV and AIDS knowledge levels and investigates factors that make young female nurses vulnerable to HIV infection at UNAM, Oshakati Campus

    Method: A mixed-method approach was employed to collect the necessary data, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology. Qualitative data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire whereas qualitative data was gathered by means of focus group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 18, and results from the focus group discussions were grouped into themes and subthemes and analyzed using thematic analysis. Random sampling with replacement technique namely, the fishbowl technique was used to select respondent and participants. This ensures equal and independent chance of being selected each time.

    Results: Most respondents indicated to have adequate knowledge about HIV and AIDS and had positive attitude necessary to effect behavioral change and implementation of prevention and care strategies. Most respondents were aware of their risk factors and aspects that increased individual vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. While the knowledge and attitude were identified as adequate, the practices of the respondents did not explicit indicate adequate level of responsible behavior among the young female student nurses in the face of HIV and AIDS.

    Conclusion: Student nurses identified HIV and AIDS as a problem of “others” and continue to report that infection would be an accidental exposure as a result of their profession or perceived powerless over sexual matters and income inequalities. Prevention remains a challenge in planning programs needed to address risky sexual behavior among students due to structural, social, socio-economic dynamics, individual circumstances, gender and biological vulnerability.

  • Keywords

    Assessment; Factors; Expose; Young; Female; Hiv Infection; Knowledge; Student Nurse.

  • References

      [1] Ackermann, L & de Klerk, G. W. (2002). “Social factors that make South African women vulnerable to HIV infection”. Department of Sociology, University of Free State, Bloemfontein: South Africa.

      [2] Anderson, K. G. & Beutel A. M (2007) HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among youth in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Social Science 3(3), 143 – 151, 2007 ISSN1549-3652. Science Publications.

      [3] Andrewin, A. & Chien (2008) “Stigmatization of Patients with HIV/ADS among doctors and nurses in Belize”. AIDS patient care and STDs, Volume 22 (11), 897-906.

      [4] Barnett, T. & Whiteside, A (2002) AIDS in the Twenty-first Century, Disease and Globalization, Palgrave Macmillan: New York.

      [5] Brink, H. I. (2006). Fundamental of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals. JUTA & COMPANY LTD, Cape Town.

      [6] Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2005). The Study guide for practice of nursing research, Conduct, Critique and utilization. 5th ed. Arlington: Texas.

      [7] Campbell, C., Foulis, C. A. Maimane, S. & Sibiya, Z (2005). The impact of social environments on the effectiveness of youth HIV prevention. A South African case study, AIDS care, 17(4), 471-478. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

      [8] Chwee, L. C., Eke-Huber, E., Eaddy, S., & Collins, J. K (2005) Nigerian College students. HIV knowledge, perceived susceptibility for HIV and sexual behaviors. College Student Journal, Vol. 39 Issue 1, 60-17. Pretoria, South Africa.

      [9] De Vos, A. S., Strydom, H. Fouche, C. B.& Delport, C. S. L. (2005). Research at grassroots for the social science and Human service professions.3rd. ed. Van schaik publishers: Pretoria, South Africa.

      [10] Fink, A. (2003). How to ask survey questions: The survey kit. 2nd. Ed. SAGE Publications; London.

      [11] Government of the Republic of Namibia & United Nations Children Emergency Fund (2004) My Future Is My Choice. Life Skills Programme. Windhoek, Namibia.

      [12] Gregson, S. Nyamukapa, C. A. Garnett, G. P. Wambe, M. Lewis, J. J. C. Mason, P. R. Chandiwawana S. K. & Anderson, R. M (2005) HIV infection and reproductive health in teenage women orphaned and vulnerable by AIDS in Zimbabwe. AIDS care, Routledge, Tailor & Francis Group. 17(7), 785-794.

      [13] Hasnain, M (2005) Cultural approach to HIV/AIDS harm reduction in Muslim Countries. Harm reduction journal, 2 (23).

      [14] Holzemer, W. L., Uys, L. R., Chirwa, M. L., Greeff, M., Makoae, L. N., Kohi, T. W., Dlamini, P., Stewart, A. L., Mullan, J., Phetlhu, R. D., Wantland, D. & Durrheim, K. (2007) Validation of the HIV/AIDS stigma instrument -PLWA (HASI-P), AIDS care. Routledge, Tailor & Francis Group. 19(8), 1002-1012.

      [15] Iipinge, S. Hone, K. & Friedman, S (2004) the relationship between gender roles and HIV infection in Namibia. University of Namibia: Windhoek. International Council of Nurses & CANAC (2006) Nurses at the forefront of HIV/AIDS. Report on International Nurses’ forum. Toronto, Canada.

      [16] Jackson, H. (2002). AIDS AFRICA: Continent in crisis. SAfAIDS, Harare.

      [17] James, S. Reddy, S. P. Taylor, M. & Jinabhai, C. C (2004) Young people, HIV/AIDS / STIs and sexuality in South Africa. The gap between awareness and behaviors. National Health Promotion Research and Development Group, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Community Health. Nelson R. Mandela Medical School. University of Natal. Durban, South Africa. Taylor & Francis. Act Pediatric, 93, 264-269.

      [18] MacLean, A (2006) Community involvement in youth reproductive health and HIV prevention. A Review and analysis of the literature, Family Health International/Youth net. Arlington, Virginia 22201.

      [19] Mantillas, J. R (2008) Protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV through global campaigns. Public Services International, International AIDS conference.

      [20] Mba, C. J (2003) Sexual behavior and the risk of HIV/AIDS and other STDs among young people in Sub-Saharan Africa. A review.

      [21] McDonald, D. A. & Ruiters, G. (Eds.) (2005) who cares for health care workers? The state of occupational health and safety in Municipal health clinic in South-Africa, Municipal Services Project, Occasional Papers Series no8.

      [22] Ministry of Health and Social Services (2003) Namibia demographic and health survey. Namibia: Windhoek.

      [23] Ministry of Health and Social Services (2006) Report on the 2006 National HIV Sentinel Survey. HIV prevalence rate in pregnant women, biannual survey 1992-2006. Windhoek, Namibia.

      [24] Ministry of Health and social Services (2007) A guide to HIV and AIDS workplace programmes. Windhoek, Namibia.

      [25] Ministry of Health and Social services (2008) Report on the 2008 National HIV Sentinel Survey. HIV prevalence rate in pregnant woman. Biannual survey 1992–2008. Namibia, Windhoek.

      [26] Msiska, R. M (2003) Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS into poverty reduction strategies. University of South Africa, Pretoria.

      [27] Mufune, P (2003) Changing patterns of sexuality in Northern Namibia. Implication for the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Culture, Health & Sexuality. Taylor & Francis Ltd. Vol. 5, (5), 425–438.

      [28] Oguntibeju, O. O. Van Chalky, F. E. & Van Den Heaver, W. M. J (2003) the epidemic. Factors responsible for the epidemic and the impact of HIV/AIDS. School of health technology Faculty of Health & Environmental Science. Bloemfontein, South Africa.

      [29] Otaala, B (2003) Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Government leaders in Namibia responding to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic issue number 6. University of Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia.

      [30] Pettifor, A. E., Rees, H. V., Kleinschmidt, I ., Steffenson, A. E., MacPhail, C., Hlongwa-Madikizela, L., Vermaak, K. & Padian, N. S (2005) Young people’s sexual health in South Africa. HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS 2005. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. 19(14), 1525-1534.

      [31] Sabone, M., Ntsayagae, Brown, M. S., Seboni, N. M., Mogobe, K. D. & Sebego, M (2007) Perceptions of undergraduate students not participating in HIV/AIDS prevention in Botswana. International Nursing Review, 54, 332–338.

      [32] Salazar, X., Caceres, C., Rosasco, A., Kegeles, S., Maiorana, A., Garate, M., Coates, T (2005) The NIMH collaborative Human Immuno Virus/Sexual Transmitted Infections prevention trial group. Vulnerability and sexual risks. Vagos and vaguitas in a low income town in Peru. Culture, Health & Sexuality. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Ltd. 7(4), 375-387.

      [33] Shapumba, T. Apollus, F. Wilkinson, W. & Shifiona, N (2004) Socio-cultural and operational research approach to adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health. Oshana Region. University of Namibia, Windhoek.

      [34] Simbayi, L. C. Kalichman, S. C., Jooste, S. Cherry, C. Mfecane, S. & Cain, D (2004) Risk factors for Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome among youth in Cape Town. South Africa. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome and behavior, Volume 9, No.1.

      [35] Talavera, P. (2002). Challenging the Namibian perception of sexuality. A case study of the Ovahimba and Ovaherero culture-sexual models in Kunene North in an HIV /AIDS context. Windhoek, Grasberg Macmillan Publishers.

      [36] UNAID/ World Health Organisation (2007) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic update.

      [37] US AID & FHI (2006) Youth Peer education. Washington DC, USA.

      [38] Van Niekerk, A. A. & Kopelman, L. M (2005) Ethics and Aids in Africa. The challenge to our thinking. South Africa, Claremont.

      [39] Visser, M. J (2005) “Life skills training as HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in Secondary Schools. Evaluation on a large–scale implementation process. Department of psychology. University of Pretoria. Brooklyn. Journal of social aspects of HIV/AIDS, Volume 2 (1), 203 –216.

      [40] Women Action for Development, University of Namibia, & NPS (2006) Understanding the perpetrators of violence crimes against women and girls in Namibia. Implications for prevention and treatment. University of Namibia, Windhoek

      [41] Weissman, A. Cocker, J. Sherburne, L. Powers, M. B. Lovich, R. & Mukaka, M (2006) Cross–generational relationships. Using a Continuum of Volition in HIV prevention work among young people. Gender & development Vol. 14 (1).




Article ID: 5925
DOI: 10.14419/ijans.v5i2.5925

Copyright © 2012-2015 Science Publishing Corporation Inc. All rights reserved.